Influences on assessment:
(Complex and far-reaching collection of procedures and practices reflect the influence of a number of disciplines and points of view)
* Ethical obligations
* Federal laws
* Multiple tests
* Multiple levels of assessment
* Professional standards
* Contributions from other disciplinesdisciplines
+ Encompasses contributions from many disciplines including psychology, medicine and educational measurement + It has also been shaped by federal laws and court decisions
+ Evaluates language and cultural differences as an integral part of the assessment process and attempts to minimize racial and cultural bias in measuring learning ability
+ Ethical obligations and professional standards are considered.
Types of Assessments:
Intelligence Testing – Measure intelligence – IQ; the concept of the mental age as a way of reporting a test result. – Identify children who would benefit from educational instruction. – Intelligence tests focus on mental abilities.
– Achivement tests focus on academic abilities.Assessing Large Groups- Testing groups of children – norm ” Proficiency tests, entrance tests, achievement tests”Assessing Adaptive Behaviors* Adaptive behavior is the ability to adapt to the environment by developing independent personal and social behavior and by adjusting to changes in the environment. – Focuses on functional and practical abilities such as communication, activities of daily living and social interaction.Assessing Developmental Skills- Developmental patterns of young children – predictable sequence skills development and learning. – Measures – motor, language and communication, personal-social,cognitive and adaptive skills.Individual Diagnosis and Prescription* Diagnosing disabilities that may cause mental retardation, physical handicaps and health impairments. – Important aspect in SPED – resembles the procedures that physicians follow in diagnosing and treating medical conditions. * Observe symptoms
* Conducts tests to diagnose the cause
* Writes a prescription for treatment – IEPIndividual Achievement Testing* Individualized yet standardized – Tools are used to assess learning needs of individual students and for developing specific teaching and intervention activities – Provide specific data and information for diagnosing remediation needs and for prescribing explicit intervention.Behavioral Assessment# Assessing student performance over time using direct observation and continuous data collection – in a structured and systematic manner. – Evaluation techniques are based on behavioral principles.
# More realistic, practical measure.
# Use of audio- or video-tapes.Curriculum – based Assessment- Measures performance based on progress in the school curriculum. – Relies on teacher-made tests, class work, homework assignments and teacher impressions to formulate assessment decisions. – Offer high accuracy and validity.
– Used to make instructional decisions.
– Evaluate student performance in direct relation to what has been taught – provides direct link between evaluation and instruction.
+ Refers to the process of determining the ability or performance level of students.
+ Types – testing, observing behavior, conducting interviews, completing rating scales, filling out checklists, performing clinical evaluations.
+ Purpose is to produce objective information such as numbers, scores or other quantitative data.
Importance of assessment:
= Identifying a student’s learning problems or difficulties. = To gain essential information about the child – conditions, abilities, interests and problems. = Required or mandated by the law; required by some schools for curriculum planning. = Selecting intervention strategies that respond to specific problems. = Essential in developing IEPs.