Methodology is about the creation of knowledge, and methods are the guiding principles for the creation of knowledge (Arbnor & Bjerke, 1997). A methodology is chosen based upon philosophical presumptions, such as background hypotheses, normative theories, conceptions, and paradigms. A methodology is chosen based upon how an interaction between presumptions and technical possibilities define and shape the problem. To choose a methodology there should be an identifiable relationship between the methodological approach and the area to be studied, bridged by an operative paradigm. Methodology is an understanding of how methods are constructed and how an operative paradigm is developed.
The operative paradigm consists of the methodical procedure and methodics. A methodical procedure is the specific use of a given technique for research in a methodological approach. As such, a technique becomes a method through the application of an explicit methodical procedure. Methodics is the way researchers relate techniques and methods into a study plan and the conduct of the study. While there are a variety of methodological approaches and procedures, there are three common research methodologies to guide primary researchers in the creation of knowledge.
Quantitative research is the traditional research design, and it is considered to be scientific research due to its use of numbers as quantitative data (Robson, 2002). This method relies heavily on experiments and surveys which give it the label of a fixed research design. There is no variation from the administration of data gathering instruments. It may be easier to establish validity, reliability, objectivity, generalizability, and trustworthiness with quantitative research designs. Quantitative research may be characterized by experiments and measures. Comprehensive Examination for Aric W Hall
Quantitative research attempts to precisely measure something, such as consumer behavior, attitudes, or knowledge (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). Quantitative research attempts to design, explain, and predict. The methodology may answer questions such as how much, how many, how often, when, and who. The survey is the dominant instrument of quantitative research. There is low researcher involvement, thus reducing the likelihood of researcher bias. Qualitative
Early interest in qualitative research stemmed from the inadequacies of quantitative research to solve problems in the social sciences (Morgan & Smircich, 1980). Quantitative research is appropriate for the natural sciences, where reality is concrete, mathematical, and objective. However, it fails to address the often subjective, imaginative, values-based, and unpredictable human elements that social scientists study. Humans are social actors, made by their environmental and social context. Human reality is found within a context that is anything but natural science.
Qualitative research is a more contemporary research design, and it has historically been considered unscientific
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