Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with abstract concepts. These abstract concepts include things like being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space. Over the years I have asked myself numerous questions pertaining to metaphysics. Things such as what is real? How do things such as our souls or even fate work? Do we determine our own fate or is it predetermined for us? Most people, including myself, ask a majority of these questions when they leave the nest. When I was graduating high school, I had no clue what the “real world” was like.
My parents paid the bills, provided for me, and put the roof over my head. As we graduate, you ask who are your “real” friends? More importantly what is real in general? What’s a real job? As you grow older, you can reflect on what was real as a child, and I have come to the conclusion that everybody’s idea of real changes along with your age and lifestyle. For example when somebody passes away and you’re young, you don’t question if it’s real, but as you age you can’t believe when something so tragic happens and you question it.
People do this every day, and for reasons that only they can explain. People talk about the spiritual world openly, but most have never experienced it. So, with that being the case it is hard to determine whether or not it is more or less real that the physical world. That’s one of those questions that as of right now I don’t have the answer to. I believe in the spiritual world whole heartedly, but to say it’s any more or less real is hard for me because I have only experienced the physical world. As of right now, I would say that they are equally real, but that is just my opinion.
Going along with that, everyone has a soul, but does it live outside the body before we pass? I don’t believe so. As a Christian, we pray for the Lord to take our soul when we pass, and to protect it while we are alive. Our soul exits the body when we are done on Earth. Fate is a very complex subject. I believe that everyone has an idea of their ultimate fate. This doesn’t mean however that that is how it will end up, or that the step along the way will line up with your plan. For example, when someone dies, people say it must have been fate.
I think that things like this are determined by Him, not us. When people say that when they fall in love that it’s fate, but that is determined by us making it free will. Therefore, I believe that our lives are determined by our own free will and fate. Epistemology is basically how we determine if something is a belief or an opinion. Some things are taught to us after they have been investigated, but other things are made up in our minds or families. If you ever look at the actual definition for knowledge it is pretty loosely written. Therefore, knowledge doesn’t have to be true.
Your knowledge is determined by you. There are universal examples of knowledge in my opinion. However, since knowledge can be false it’s hard to say if others would believe the same. For example, 2+2=4 that seems like it would be true everywhere, might not be. Someone might be think 2+2=something other than 4. 1. Epistemology: * Is all knowledge subjective, or are there some universal truths? * What is the relationship between faith and reason? * What can artificial intelligence teach people about knowledge? * What are the limits of human understanding?
2. Ethics: * What is the right thing to do? * What does it mean to be a good person? * Does virtue lead to happiness? * Do the ends justify the means, or is a virtuous action virtuous in and of itself? * How does living in a society affect morality? * Is morality culturally based, individually based, or is there a universal morality? 3. Aesthetics: * What is beautiful? * Is beauty truly in the eye of the beholder, or are there some things that all cultures find beautiful? * What is the purpose of art? * How can a piece of art be successful or valuable?
Does beauty matter? 4. Political philosophy: * What is the best kind of government? * How much power should the government have? * What kind of people should be in power? * How involved should the common citizen be in government? 5. Social philosophy: * How should humans behave in a society? * Do people give up certain rights when they choose to live in a society? * How do social values affect individual beliefs? Do people behave differently in a crowd than they would individually? * How does society affect language and other types of communication?