Definition: *Realism may be defined as any philosophical position that asserts: 1. The objective existence of the world and beings an it and relatives between these beings independents on human knowledge and desires: 2. The knowability of these objects as they are in themselves 3. The need for conformity to the objective reality in man’s conduct *Realisms an educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the realities of life and should prepare a person for his/her duties in life. Ontology (Reality) for realism is a world of things.
Epistemology (how we know) – realists use their senses of observation Axiology of realism (values) is the laws of nature that can be revealed through the application of scientific reason Proponents: *John Milton— believe that education must prepare one for life in the real world *Francois Rabelais—advocated that all forms of studies be made pleasant, with games and sports being utilized toward the physical development of the child and for practical development of the child and for practical application later in life.
Michael de Montaigne—according to him, the aim of education, is not to produce scholars and professionals but to prepare a young boy to live the life of a gentleman in the world of affairs John Amos Comenius—first educator who advocated the use of visual aids in classroom teaching Francis Bacon—according to him, knowledge of nature is the only real and fruitful knowledge and should be the basis of all scientific progress. Richard Mulcaster —he advocated that all teaching processes should be adopted to the pupils and that the mother tongue or vernacular should be used to instruct pupils aged 6 to 12.
*Wolfgang Ratke—advocated the use of vernacular as the medium of instruction as the child need no longer learn the language and thus can concentrate wholly on the lesson being studied. *Aristotle is the foremost proponent of realism, as Plato student, had his philosophical beginning rooted in platonic idealism, yet developed his own regarding the nature of reality later on. Aristotelian realism proposes that ideas can free float without having matter, whereas matter cannot exist without some semblance of form, and this form is independent of mental cognizance.
*Religious realism was put forth by Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century stating that true reasoning lies with supreme reasoned-God—and that by aligning our rational minds with his tenets,we too can understand the universe and the nature of reality In more modern time’s philosophers such as Francis Baco, John Locke and later G. E. Moore and Ayn Rand forwarded theories regarding moral realism. Political realism—proponents were Otto Von Bismarck and Carl Von Clausewitz. Moderate realism proponents St. Thomas Aquinas and John of Salisbury—held that universals exist only in the mind of God.
Implication of Realism AIM The aim of education is to provide the students with the essential knowledge he will need to survive in the natural world. According to John Luis Vives aducation should develop personality Rabelais,was for the development of a whole man Milton believed that education was to prepare for actual living CURRICULUM The realists believe that the most efficient and effective way to find out reality is to study it through organized, separate, and systematically arranged subject matter.
This is called the subject matter approach to curriculum which is composed of two basic components…the body of knowledge and the appropriate pedagogy to fit in the readiness of the learner. METHODOLOGY The teacher is expected to be skilled in both the subject matter that he teaches and the method of teaching it to students. The school task is primarily on intellectual one. In the elementary level, emphasis is on the development of skills for reading, writing, arithmetic, and study habits In the secondary and collegiate level,students will be required to recall, explain, compare, interpret and make inferences.