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Metaphysics Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Practicing metaphysics

One of the major philosophical contributions of Kant was his interpretation of pure practical reason as will. He transforms the concepts of both reason and the will. Reason or rationality was conceived by Kant as interest and the driving-force. Further, the will is believed to be the rational power, that is formed by law and striving fro universality in both its inner operation and the process it plans to form the physical world. Practicing metaphysics engages asking inquiries concerning the ultimate nature of reality. Kant recommended that metaphysics can be transformed through epistemology. He recommended that by knowing the foundations and restrictions of human knowledge we can inquire prolific metaphysical questions. He asked if an entity can be identified to…

Christian Worldview

There is a universal absolute truth that can be known – God is the Ultimate reality. Life has meaning and purpose – death is not the end. History is purposeful and illustrates the movement toward the fulfillment of God’s plan for His creation. Human beings are created in the image of God – physical and spiritual beings who can know and relate to God. Everything that exists is a creation of God’s intelligent design. •The Importance of Testing a Worldview Samples (2007) states, “A person’s worldview is the prism through which one makes sense of life and death. Therefore it is critical to have a view that is genuinely clear and distinct” (p. 27). My worldview provides the basis for…

Descartes and Plato

Explain both of descartes Arguments for the existence of God Descartes proof of God’s existence comes from his third meditation and is based on three ideas. He argues that innate idea exists within us, the fictitious or invented ideas are a result of our own imagination and adventitious ideas result from our experiences in the world. Descartes said, the idea of God is innate and cannot be invented. Descartes presents some arguments that lead to his conclusion. The first argument is that nothing can result to something and the cause of an idea will always have a formal reality because the idea must have an objective reality. He argues that if an individual have God, then the idea has an…

Midas Case Study

Winners: From the customer’s perspective the winners which ensures they utilise Midas are Speed and Price. In order to assess the anticipated impacts of the introduction of maintenance services on the existing business process it is necessary to analyse the potential fit of the new business with the existing areas. This analysis will indicate whether or not the process can be effectively integrated within the existing production process without jeopardising the company’s existing winning qualifiers. Potential negative impacts ?Need to new skills within taskforce ? training is necessary; ? Complicates the operation process; ?Demands on physical space and potential capacity constraints; ? Pressure on storage space of inventory ? may require offsite storage which may complicate the operation process; ?…

Personal life

Living a “Good Life. ” This is something most people strive for, but what we all question is, what is it that leads to a “good life,” or what does it really mean to have a “good life. ” Most people would agree that whatever makes a person happy will lead to a good life, but happiness with each individual differs. Whether it be pleasure, wealth, or health many can disregard the virtue of true happiness, and their material desires leads to ignorance. Aristotle’s answer to this is that we must enjoy the proper things in life in order to be happy; and it is through proper activities that we are able to live the Good Life. I would have…

Moral Agency

Most philosophers suggest only rational beings, who can reason and form self-interested judgments, are capable of being moral agents. Some suggest those with limited rationality (for example, people who are mildly mentally disabled or infants[1]) also have some basic moral capabilities. [3] Determinists argue all of our actions are the product of antecedent causes, and some believe this is incompatible with free will and thus claim that we have no real control over our actions. Immanuel Kant argued that whether or not our real self, the noumenal self, can choose, we have no choice but to believe that we choose freely when we make a choice. This does not mean that we can control the effects of our actions. Some…

Naturalism in Miss Julie

……. Naturalism developed in France in the 19th Century as an extreme form of realism. It was inspired in part by the scientific determinism of Charles Darwin, an Englishman, and the economic determinism of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, both Germans. Four Frenchmen—Hippolyte Taine, Edmond and Jules Goncourt, and Emile Zola—applied the principles of scientific and economic determinism to literature to create literary naturalism. According to its followers, literary naturalism has the following basic tenets: (1) Heredity and environment are the major forces that shape human beings. In other words, like lower animals, humans respond mainly to inborn instincts that influence behavior in concert with—and sometimes in opposition to—environmental influences, including economic, social, cultural, and familial influences. Miss Julie, for…

Thinking Through Film Stranger Than Fiction

Zach Helm is a writer born in California, USA and he is mostly known for the film ‘’Stranger than Fiction’’ for which he won awards such as Literary Award at PEN Centre and NBR award at National Board of Review in USA and was also nominated for the Saturn Award at Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. ‘’Stranger than Fiction’’ is a film that illuminates many philosophical themes such us existentialism, free will and determinism but this essay is focused on epistemology (theory of knowledge). Knowledge and the differences between reality, dream or fiction have been discussed by many philosophers such as Socrates, Thaetus, Plato and Descartes who with discussions, rational or empirical thinking, tried to approach a…

Epistemology Essay

Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous “cogito” argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question. Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge even possible? If so, how do we get it? Does knowledge correspond to reality? How do people acquire knowledge? –Is it from the world or from our experiences in the world or do we have it before we experience the world? Metaphysics is a division of philosophy interested in figuring out…

Epistemology Essay

Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous “cogito” argument. But in order to understand how that works, first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question. Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is knowledge even possible? If so, how do we get it? Does knowledge correspond to reality? How do people acquire knowledge?–Is it from the world or from our experiences in the world or do we have it before we experience the world? Metaphysics is a division of philosophy interested in figuring out exactly…

Aristotle vs Plato – Comparative Essay

I believe Aristotle and Plato are both great thinkers. Aristotle and Plato both give good evidence to what they believe. There are some things that Plato says that I may or may not agree on, and same goes with Aristotle. In this essay I am going to prove why Aristotle and Plato both have an influence upon my thinking. In order for me to prove that I must understand Plato’s thinking, and Aristotle’s thinking. I am going to analyze their different philosophical perspectives such as their theory of forms, and human nature. Aristotle has a greater influence upon my thinking in the long run, but I want to be sure that I understand them both. Plato believes the body is…

Anselm’s Cosmological Argument

Anselm seeks to explain the existence of a greatest being, i. e. God. He approaches this task not via our experience of the universe, but rather attempts to explain it solely based upon reason. Anselm attempts to prove the existence of God by providing us with a logical explanation, based upon our understanding, definition, and necessity of God. It is inconceivable for God not to exist. There is a certain nature through which everything that is exists, Anselm explains, is caused to exist by something. Everything that is, exists by virtue of something, and nothing is able to exist through nothing. The underlying assumption here is that things do not exist through themselves for there is no need for their…

Heraclitus V. Parmenides

The heavily studied philosophical debate that has been carried for centuries on the nature of being and the perception of it, displays the vast differences between the two philosophers Heraclitus and Parmenides. One which believed in a singularity of things, while one differs and carries the philosophy of a duality of reality. One that believes that the changes in perception are deceitful, while the other displays a philosophical view that our perceptions essentially relative and always changing based one of nature. One believes that reality and nature is constant , while the other believes that everything is constantly changing , and that even the flowing river that one may step his foot in will not be the same river the…

500 Word Summary Hicks Theodicy

John Hick is a modern theologian who developed his theodicy based on an argument originally put forward by St Irenaeus. Hick’s theodicy is a form of the free will defense with a few particular developments such as his concept of soul making, mans epistemic distance from God and the concept of universal salvation. Irenaeus’ original theory is based on his interpretation of Genesis 1:26 ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness’. From this Irenaeus concluded that first humans were made in the image of God and are only intended to develop later into his likeness through willing cooperation. This cooperation however requires genuine freedom, as it is not possible to willingly cooperate when something is forced upon…

Critical Evaluation

The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus, in Greek Ionia. Aristotle the major source of Thales’ philosophy and science identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, for in the sixth century he broke away from explaining the natural phenomena through myths and adopted rational means of explaining it. In explaining the totality of all things, Thales described one primary material substance as the elemental foundation of all things, for he believed that there must be some natural substance either one or more than one from which other things come into being while it is preserved, and he postulated that this primary principle is water. Being an astronomer on the other hand he was believed…

Descartes’ First Trademark Argument

Descartes argues that our idea of God is innate, meaning it is something inside us from birth, something that has always been there and will always be there. He believed that everybody has an idea of God being a supremely perfect being, and comes to the conclusion in his argument, that God himself put this idea there, he even said that our idea of God is like “the mark of the craftsman stamped on his work” – us being the work, the mark being our knowledge of God himself. For Descartes, the fact that everybody has this innate idea of a supremely perfect God is in itself, proof of his existence; and the fact that this is an a priori…

Reflection Confession of St. Augustine

St. Augustine uses his focus on the fact that God may exists in the same extent which wisdom and truth exists, which is as concepts or ideas in the mind but not reality. He shows that there is evidence of God but not a powerful creator. To Augustine, God exists but requires him to exist for the basis of his argument. St. Augustine focuses on memory as an unconscious knowledge, which eventually leads him to his knowledge of God. Augustine is no longer telling events of the past, but only of present time. Augustine starts his analysis of memory in a description of a house. The storehouse is a place where objects are retrieved, deposited, and re-stored; just like the…

The Wickedness of Ignorance

Wisdom is perfect, beautiful and forever absolute – the efficacy of truth, regarding any and all subjects and temporal and metaphysical concerns of conscious being, does not progressively degrade1; however, I believe it is also conversely feasible that one’s comprehension of truth can arguably be perceived to dilute by and within the limitations manifested through the existence and effect of the physical scalar that is time and aging. Though society can progress and human ideas and perceptions can change, the majority of classically important and essential philosophical works – ostensibly succeeding in their efforts to catch and miraculously retain the beauty of absolute truth in our eyes – have remained with us throughout the ages. As I have discerned it,…

Kant & Hume, Comparative Study

Two of the modern world’s most followed and known, yet opposing philosophers. Immanuel Kant and David Hume both assert that all knowledge comes from experience, yet disagree on whether or not experience determines all knowledge, disagree on the causality of the universe as organized or unorganized, and disagree on God’s existence (or non-existence) within the world. Despite these vast differences, however, both philosophies have managed to co-exist in the modern world. Kant proclaims that all knowledge comes from experience, and that people are intelligent and rational enough to synthesize previous experiences into predictions (or fore-knowledge) of the future. On the other hand, Hume proclaims that all knowledge comes from experience and that just because something has occurred in the past…

Rene Descartes and a discription

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was not only a philosopher but also a mathematician and scientist. As a philosopher, he used skepticism as a means of finding the truth of all. His idea was to doubt everything, and in doubting everything, anything that couldn’t be doubted was definite. “I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, he reasons, and if anything is left, then it will be absolutely certain. ” (Moore/Bruder 93) This, Descartes felt was the only way to obtain truth and knowledge. This method was to take away all the confidence in everything that was taught to us, what we sense and believe, and the things we take as being obvious. To truly determine if we know anything is…

Clarke’s Cosmological Argument

Clarke begins his argument by asserting the obvious–that based on experience, all of the beings that surround us today do exist. These beings, encountered based on one’s experience, are dependent on a prior cause. In other words, everything that exists must have been caused by something else that also exists or has existed; and for something finite to exist today, such as any being in this world, it would mean that there must have been something that has existed since infinity. According to Clarke, there are only two plausible explanations as to how such a premise could be upheld. First explanation he gives, is that there could have been an infinite regression of dependent things, each one causing the other….

Atheism vs Theism

The problem Atheists have with Theists and the premise of God, a Being who is all good, omniscient, omnipotent and eternal, is that they believe that since science and the world cannot prove that such a being exists and since life seems to sustain itself without any external help, then this Being probably does not exists nor can this Being ever be proven to exist. This method of thinking stems directly from a belief, not that science is god, but more that mankind is a self-sufficient, self-reliant being along with the philosophy of materialism and evolution which denies the possibility of soul or the immaterial. This resulted in the hijacking of science to prove what materialists already believed, that everything…

The Weakest Argument of Thomas Aquinas’ Five Ways

Thomas Aquinas’ weakest argument is, without a doubt, the argument from gradation. In Aquinas’ fourth way, God is defined as the Absolute Being which, in a sense, is used as a yardstick for the measurement of all qualities. There is a belief that some things are better than others, which can be applied to all things, but can it really be applied to everything? Is one rose better than another if equal in age and care? Who determines which one is better? If there were two identical twins, is one better than the other? Aquinas believed that things are good only in proportion to how closely they resemble that which he considers perfect. Therefore, if there is nothing that is…

The problem with determinism

The traditional view is that of the compatibilists which states that freedom is the ability to act, or not to act, according to the determinations of the will. It is so defined to make it compatible with the theory of determinism, which essentially states that all actions have a causal explanation due to the state of the world in the moment previous. However, the definition is clearly inadequate due to the fundamental flaws of determinism and its failure to account for deliberation or personal choice. A superior alternative is offered by what Taylor calls the theory of agency, but is more commonly known as libertarianism. In discussing a theory one must start with some data in order to prove the…

Philosophical Issues Surrounding Aristotles Final Cause

What philosophical issues arise around aristotles final cause when applied to human beings? The final cause according to Aristotle is the purpose for an object, for example, the final purpose of a chair would be to sit. This is a straightforward principle when applied to man made objects, because they all have an obvious creator and that creator makes them for a purpose. Aristotle also said that the final cause could be applied to natural things, like trees, animals and humans. This is where many people believe Aristotle made a fundamental mistake. How can you define the purpose of an animal or a tree? This causes a problem when you try to apply the final cause to human beings. The…

Descartes and Skepticism

Rene Descartes was a great scientist, mathematician and philosopher. He was known for his extensive work on skepticism, and in particular a piece called “Meditations on First Philosophy” (written in 1641) which is still widely used by modern philosophers. In this publication, Descartes’ aim was to demonstrate that a persons’ soul is eternal and that God exists. He explains in Meditation One that it is possible to question the existence of all things; in Meditation two he goes on to give details regarding the existence of the mind and the soul. In the Third Meditation he gives arguments of proof of Gods’ existence; and in Meditation Four he explains the difference between truth and error. In the Fifth Meditation Descartes…

Plato’s Philosophical Significance (in Regards to Metaphysics, and Ethics

Philosophy spans the reaches of the human mind in countless topics, but is often divided into three main branches: metaphysics, the study of the nature of existence; epistemology, the study of knowledge and truth; and ethics, the study of morals. One of the first philosophers to look at these fields is Plato (427BCE-347BCE), whose writings are incredibly influential. Plato’s work lays the fundament for philosophy because of his cohesive contributions to the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Firstly, Plato’s work with Forms greatly influences metaphysics. He contributes the idea of the Forms which exist as “eternal and perfect ideals that exist in an unchanging, perfect heaven” (via Velasquez, 2002, p. 84). [2] The Forms contrast with worldly matter; this…

Metaphysics and Realism Proponents St.

Definition: *Realism may be defined as any philosophical position that asserts: 1. The objective existence of the world and beings an it and relatives between these beings independents on human knowledge and desires: 2. The knowability of these objects as they are in themselves 3. The need for conformity to the objective reality in man’s conduct *Realisms an educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the realities of life and should prepare a person for his/her duties in life. Ontology (Reality) for realism is a world of things. Epistemology (how we know) – realists use their senses of observation Axiology of realism (values) is the laws of nature that can be revealed through the application of scientific…

Metaphysics and Monism

People are monists, dualists or pluralists depending on whether or not they believe that reality is composed of one, two or more substances. These positions may be represented as here indicated. Hindus, Buddhists and Animists are for the most part monists. They believe that reality is one and that everything that exists is a functioning part of that whole which is spirit. Western man for the most part may be called a monist also as he believes that God is dead and matter is the only substance to reality. Bible believing Christians would be pluralists. In philosophy of mind, monism is usually contrasted with the dualist position that mind and matter are deeply different. Thus, monism is the claim that…

Nihilism – Absurdism

In the following paper, I’ll attempt to argue that the Mereological Universalism championed by James Van Cleve, and metaphysical nihilism, are more or less reconcilable. What’s more, I’ll argue that the functional understanding of the world occupied by universalists is more or less identical to that which is necessarily employed by all nihilists (or at least all those still living, and what’s more living outside of mental hospitals). I’ll do this first by laying out how, ultimately, it’s necessary for those beholden to polar opposite views of object hood employ very similar functional understandings of the world, and secondly, what scale of measurement both schools of thought would find mutually employable. Finally, I’ll conclude by justifying the stance that choosing…