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Metabolism Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Physiology of Aging

Aging is a process that all humans must go through, and as life expectancy increases it becomes more important to understand the intimate details to normal aging process. Maintaining health is very important to this process, the older a person becomes the more medical services is needed. Since aging is a process that begins when you are conceived and continues for as long as we live out life span, our body reflects genetic components and environmental experience. So in a genetic way our bodies has the capacity to adapt and repair as well as collect damages from disease process. In this society, we now think of 65 to 74 years old as “young old”, 75 to 84 as “middle old”…

Hereditary fructose intolerance

Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of chemical activity. Their three dimensional structure determines their function, and is made of chains of amino acids that have folded into a specific shape with a unique property. Enzymes lower the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction, therefore speeding up the process. Multiple enzymes work together in metabolic pathways, taking a product (end result) of one metabolic reaction as a substrate (substance or molecule at start of process) for another reaction. Metabolic pathways create the avenue for fructolysis, the breakdown (catabolism) of fructose, occurring in the liver, and in muscle and fat tissue. Most of fructose obtained by diet is metabolized in the liver, where the enzyme fructokinase is abundant. This…

Ketones in insulin resistant state

1. How is glucose normally maintained in the post absorptive state? 2. Why is muscle glycogen not useful for blood glucose 3. Why may this situation have evolved 4. Under what circumstances do you think substantial gluconeogenesis will occur 5. What is necessary for the production of ketones 6. What will reduce acetyl CoA oxidation 7. When is oxaloacetate availability impaired 8. When is the regulation of gluconeogenesis disrupted Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are reciprocally regulated by eachother. What promotes the activity of one inhibits the other. Lack of insulin leads to high levels of glucose in the blood, gluc levels exceed renal threshold.. this causes excess water to excreted in urine (polyuria) Ketones are formed when there is not enough…

Emergency Room

The procedure taken at my last emergency room visit took many steps. The evening began by entering in to an overly crowded waiting area. Every chair that lined the walls was filled with a warm body, many of whom where hacking, coughing, sneezing and such. I approached the registration window and was greeted by a kind intake worker who proceeded to evaluate my situation. He then sent me around the corner to have my vitals taken and registration paper work signed. A nurse then took me for preliminary testing. An EKG was administered, as well as blood work for labs; a series of x-rays were administered as well. Following these procedures I was then led down a long corridor, and…

What Chemical Compounds Does the Human Body Consist of?

Oxygen (65%) and hydrogen (10%) are predominantly found in water, which makes up about 60 percent of the body by weight. It’s practically impossible to imagine life without water. Carbon (18%) is synonymous with life. Its central role is due to the fact that it has four bonding sites that allow for the building of long, complex chains of molecules. Moreover, carbon bonds can be formed and broken with a modest amount of energy, allowing for the dynamic organic chemistry that goes on in our cells. Nitrogen (3%) is found in many organic molecules, including the amino acids that make up proteins, and the nucleic acids that make up DNA. Calcium (1.5%) is the most common mineral in the human…

Marketing Mix (4 P’s) of Milo

Milo: In Greek mythology there was a Roman athlete named MILOn who was famous for his feats of strength. Legend has it that he once carried a four-year-old bullock through the stadium in Olympia, Greece! You may not grow as strong as Milon by drinking MILO, but it is a very tasty way to get many of the nutrients you need to grow strong. Product: ‘Milo’ the energy drink nestled into the Indian market in 1996. The responsibility of launching the drink in a market dominated by time tested Bournvita and Boost was no easy task for Nestle. Being the fifth player in the brown beverage market, the drink was up against Bournvita which had an enviable market share of…

Anatomy & Physiology

In this assignment the concept of homeostasis will be explained and the probable homeostatic responses to changes in the internal environment during exercise will be discussed. Homeostasis is simply how the body keeps conditions inside the same. It is described as the maintenance of a constant internal environment. Generally, the body is in homeostasis when its needs are met and it’s functioning properly. Every organ in the body contributes to homeostasis. A complex set of chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact in complex ways, both helping the body while it works to maintain homeostasis. In homeostasis there is the concept of Negative feedback which ensures that, in any control system, changes are reversed and returned back to the set level….

The transfer of substances

The transfer of substances containing carbon between organisms and between organisms and the environment Carbon is a component of all major molecules in living organisms, which makes obtaining it a very important process. These organisms obtain and lose carbon through the carbon cycle. The cycle begins with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere being fixed into organic molecules through photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, the carbon dioxide diffuses into the leaf through the stomata and is reduced by hydrogen from the light-dependent reaction (where photolysis of water has taken place using the light energy absorbed in the chlorophyll to produce protons, electrons and oxygen.) the carbon dioxide then diffuses into the stroma of the chloroplast, where the light independent reaction takes place. Here…

Why Are Proteins Important

Proteins can easily be addressed as one of the most important molecules in animal cells. There are many varieties of protein molecules which allow a vast range of biological activities in the cell.( Williams, G.(2000))’Proteins are big compound with large molecular masses’’(Williams, G.(2000)) whose main chemical constituents are hydrogen, carbon ,oxygen and nitrogen. A protein structure consists of a specific sequence of amino acids called the primary structure, this particular sequence determines the secondary structure of the protein which can be α-helix or β-pleated sheet. This then further folds to form the tertiary structure . The primary structure determines the eventual shape of the protein and thus its function. ‘’Different proteins can appear very different and perform diverse functions’’ (S-COOL….

Zachary’s Story

1. An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the G.I tract wall. What functions of digestion or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and then the muscularis? Absorption would not happen correctly because some of the ingested and secreted may seep out of the lumen. This could also create a pathway of entry for pathogens, if the ulcer ate its way through to the muscularis mucosa and lose some control of defecation. 2. If Zachary has a peptic ulcer affecting his stomach and or duodenum, which components of the peritoneum will be affected? If the ulcer eats a hole into the wall…

Key Question Biology

1) Mg2+ Has 10 electrons. 2) Carbon -14 would not be effective at dating bones that are millions of years old. Carbon -14 is effective at dating to a maximum of 40 000 to 50 000 years old. The isotope decays over time and would not be present on bones that are millions of years old. 3) Hydrolysis – Water used to breakdown molecules. Hydro means water and lysis means to breakdown. An example of hydrolysis in action within our bodies is how our body breaks down protein into amino acids. Water is used to break protein down in to its amino acids. Condensation- Condensation is when two molecules combine and form one bigger molecule. It is exact opposite process…

Methyl Red test

The Methyl red test is used as a PH indicator test. This is done through identifying enteric bacteria that generate stable acids through means of combined fermentation of glucose, dependent on their style of glucose metabolism. The test is performed by adding five drops of Methyl Red PH indicator to the prepared test tube. A positive test turns red indicating PH that is lower than 4.41. Voges-Proskauer test: The Voges-Proskauer test distinguishes which organisms exploit the butylene glycol pathway and also create acetoin. Completion of the Voges-Proskauer test is dependent upon consumption of glucose which releases acetoin (acetymethylcarbinol). As the glucose ferments it also produces 2,3-butanediol. The test is executed by adding alpha-naphtol and potassium hydroxide to the MR-VP broth…

Biochemical Basis of HFI

1. 2 Important Features of Enzymes Enzymes are proteins used in chemical reactions. In the reactions, enzymes act as catalysts. They function to speed up chemical reactions without using the enzymes themselves. The catalysts are neither the reactor nor the product. The first feature discussed in the text is the energy of the reaction. Catalysts will not change the energy of any reaction. For example, a non-catalyzed reaction and a catalyst reaction will both have the same equilibrium. Another feature is the activation energy. This is the free energy of activation where the catalyst reaction reaches the transition state. All catalysts lower activation energies of reactions. By lowering the energy molecules will reach the necessary energy level where the reaction…

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Yeast Respiration

Abstract Carbon dioxide is a waste product of yeast respiration. A series of experiment was conducted to answer the question; does temperature have an effect on yeast respiration? If the amount of carbon dioxide is directly related to temperature, then varying degrees of temperature will result in different rates of respiration in yeast. The experiment will be tested using yeast and sugar at different water temperatures. I predict the warm temperature will be optimal for yeast respiration therefore the most carbon dioxide will be released. The experiments tested yeast respiration in both, warm water at 42 degrees Celsius and at room temperature. The outcome of the experiment indicates the warm water is optimal for yeast respiration in comparison to cold…

The concept of homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment in organisms. It involves volume of blood and tissue fluid within restricted limits, it also maintains chemical makeup of the blood. Autonomic control systems throughout the body maintain temperature and water levels, which are required for cells to function properly. Although homeostasis maintains the internal environment it does not mean that there are no changes. There are continuous fluctuations brought about by variations in internal and external conditions such as temperature levels and the balance of alkalinity and acidity. The inability to maintain homeostasis could lead to disease or even possibly death, it can also lead to a condition known as homeostatic imbalance. For instance when the negative feedback mechanisms become…

Role of energy in the body

In our bodies we need energy we need energy for everything we do, move our muscles, talk etc. Without energy we wouldn’t be able to do anything, energy is needed for our bodies to function. Chemical reactions in our body extract energy from the food we eat. Doing everything to body needs to stay alive and grow includes, pumping ions across membranes, making hormones, making new cells, neural function, contracting muscles, replacing damaged or worn out components, absorbing nutrients, excreting wastes and pumping blood. Supplying enough energy to support the many functions of the body at work is food. This energy comes from the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the food you eat. Of the three, fat is the most…

How has a process in nature been used as a medical intervention?

The process in nature is the chemical in fireflies that causes them to light up. It’s being used as a medical intervention by using them to directly measure energy levels inside our living hearts. What does the level of ATP tell scientists about the functioning of the heart? What the level of ATP says about the function of the heart is that high levels of ATP indicate a high level of O2 constant function and need for O2. What are potential applications of this research? How can this type of test help patients? The tests could help patients with heart diseases and could detect a potential heart attack and prevent it from happening. Conclusion 1 Based on what you learned…

Zachary’s Story

A) An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the GI tract wall. What functions of digestion and/or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and then the muscularis? Some of the ingested and secreted may not be absorbed correctly and may seep lumen if the mucosa layer is no longer functional. The functions that may be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and the muscularis would be the breakdown of food and mixing it with digestive secretions. If the ulcer eats through the muscularis it may be difficult for digestion to occur. B) If Zach has a peptic ulcer affecting his…

Go Glow Grow

Go Glow Grow is a nutrition curriculum developed for preschool children. In conjunction with the book Go Glow Grow: Foods for You, children learn about healthy eating, exercising and the importance of hand washing. Using a simplified version of MyPlate, children learn the connection between healthy foods and what they do for the body. •Grains are Go foods, they help you run, jump and play all day. •Fruits and vegetables are Glow foods; they help you have shiny hair and sparkly eyes. •Milk and meat & beans are Grow foods, they help you to grow big and strong. Each lesson includes teacher background information, two activities, snack recipes, and review questions. There is also a take home letter telling parents…

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and respiration are both processes that are necessary for the survival of organisms. However, in numerous ways these two processes are very diverse as they are responsible for distinct necessities. Therefore they both have similarities and differences. One major difference between the two is that photosynthesis takes place completely in plants while respiration occurs equally in plants and animals. Nevertheless to understand Photosynthesis and respiration, we need to understand what is photosynthesis and cellular respiration and examine each of these processes in detail and associate them to the parts of a cell responsible for each function. Photosynthesis is the procedure in which green plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make food and oxygen and cellular respiration is…

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Cells of all organisms are capable in acquiring the energy necessary to fuel chemical reactions for growth, repair, survival, and reproduction. Photosynthesis & cellular respiration are the main pathways of energy flow in living things. Photosynthesis is a process by which plants and some other organisms convert, light energy from the sun, CO2 from the air & H2O from the earth, into chemical energy stored in molecules like glucose. Cellular respiration is a process in which O2 is delivered to cells in an organism & metabolic process in cells leads to the production of ATP by the breakdown of organic substances. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrion of the cell and photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. There are some similarities…

How the integration of all the systems contribute to normal functioning

All parts of the human body are extremely different and each one complex in the way in which they functioning. The integration of the eleven systems of the body are all essential for normal functioning and need interact to maintain a healthy body. An example of integration, is the respiratory system and the circulatory system. The respiratory system brakes down Oxygen (O) taken into the body. After this action has taken place, the Oxygen is then passed into the circulatory system to be transported around the body to provide cells with energy. This energy is called Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), without this energy the body and its functioning would fail. After Oxygen has been distributed around the body the waste product…

Horses Anatomy

The respiratory system of the horse is well adapted to athletic exercise, with unrestricted upper airway diameters, and a large lung capacity afforded by 18 ribs. These combine to enable air intakes of up to 1800 litres per minute in a galloping horse. Volumes of up to 300 litres of blood are pumped at high pressure through small lung capillaries surrounding 10 million air sacs to take up and deliver over 70 litres of oxygen per minute to the working muscles at the gallop. As a result, any restriction in upper airway diameter, obstruction of the airways, diseases or stress related conditions that reduce efficiency of oxygen uptake from the air sacs, can have a great influence on athletic capacity….

Mitochondria and Chloroplast

When comparing and contrasting the mitochondria and chloroplast, a person learns all of the similarities and differences between the two. In this essay, you will read about the mitochondria, the chloroplast, and their biochemical reactions. The mitochondria often referred to as the powerhouse cell is found in the eukaruotic cells. There, those cells are often found in groups of hundreds. Mitochondria cells can be anywhere from 1 to 10 um long in length, but are able to change shapes, move, and divide into two. The cell itself is enclosed in an envelope of two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth while the other is convoluted with unfoldings called cristae. The mitochondrion becomes even more complex when divided into its two…

Enzyme-controlled reaction

Write an explanation of how any two factors affect the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction. How do these factors affect the chemical structure and properties of the enzyme. Many things can affect the rate of enzyme activity. The temperature of the enzyme, the pH of the solution, the concentration of the enzyme, substrate and the product. Also, another affector is the number of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors. As I cannot explain them all, I have chosen to explain the effect of temperature and also the effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity. Temperature : As the temperature is increased the kinetic theory is applied. More energy is present and the molecules move fast. This increases the chance of collision between the enzymes…

Pancreatic endocrine hormones

Energy, in the form of sugar, is transported in the blood. It is carried throughout the body and into all cells to produce ATP. ATP is needed for all cellular activity of the body. It is essential that the blood can maintain the body’s fuel at a constant level (homeostasis) regardless of how long it has been since the last meal. There are three main organs that regulate the control of blood sugar: the pancreas, the liver and the adrenal glands. The pancreas produces hormones called insulin and glucagon. These hormones work antagonistically to maintain blood sugar levels that are neither too low or too high. The adrenal gland plays a key function in making sure blood sugar levels are…

Nutrition and Body

All macromolecules are essential to the body. One has to have the right amount of all of the macromolecules in order to be healthy. It is believed that high protein diets with carbohydrate restriction causes weight loss. However as a result of high protein diet, one damages his/her kidney which is responsible for filtering proteins from blood. In the article, Janine says, “If you eat too much proteins and not enough carbs you can ruin your kidneys forever.” I agree with Janine, one has to have enough carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are important in the body as they provide energy for short term storage. However if one does not have enough carbohydrates in his/her diet, it affects the brain. Glucose from carbs…

Energy Drink Lab Report

As a result of conducting various qualitative chemical analysis tests, Monster Energy ® was found to contain a large amount of reducing sugars and NaCl. It was found to be void of proteins and lipids. Further, Canada Dry ® gingerale was found to contain a large amount of reducing sugars, while being void of protein, lipids and NaCl. The components of the Monster Energy drink tested were quite congruent to the components found in the other energy drinks. The exceptions, however, were that SugarFree Rockstar, like the name suggests, contains no traces of sugar, unlike Monster Energy. Also, unlike other energy drinks, Monster Energy contained detectable traces of sodium chloride. The components of gingerale were also quite similar to the…

Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone

Part 1 1 Which rat had the fastest basal metabolic rate (BMR)? The normal rat had the faster basal metabolic rate, because it was not missing its pituitary gland or its thyroid gland. 2 Why did the metabolic rates differ between the normal rat and the surgically altered rats? How well did the results compare with your prediction? The normal rat has the highest BMR because it has the glands required to stimulate and regulate the release of thyroid hormones. 3 If an animal has been thyroidectomized, what hormone(s) would be missing in its blood? Triiodothyronine and thyroxine. 4 If an animal has been hypophysectomized, what effect would you expect to see in the hormone levels in its body? For…

The Building Blocks of Life Worksheet

Part 1: Mitosis and Meiosis Short-Answer Response Use Ch. 5 of BioInquiry and the “Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis” video as resources for Part 1 of this assignment. Write 75- to 100-word answers to the following questions. Why are the process of mitosis and meiosis both important to a living organism? Mitosis is the process of asexual reproduction of cells. This process is important in order for living organisms to continue to live. If mitosis didn’t happen the living organisms would die when the original cells died off rather than the original cells making new cells that are exactly the same. Meiosis is the process of sexual reproduction where gametes are produced. This is the process of offspring being made. Animals,…