Listening can occur in:
1. One-on-one communication or face-to-face conversations 2. a small group 3. large group
Levels of attentiveness
1. Nonlistener. This individual is preoccupied with personal thoughts unrelated to the speaker’s message. 2. Passive listener. This person hears the speaker’s words without really understanding them. This incomplete absorption means the listener lacks a coherent view of the entire message. 3. Semi-active listener. The listener attempts to get what the speaker says but still doesn’t understand the total intent. 4. Active listener. This person is more effective. The listener pays close attention to the words and their context.
HEARING VS. LISTENING
Hearing is a physical process; listening is a mental one. Listening involves comprehending and retaining what is heard.
The listening process
The listening process consists of 4 elements: 1. Hearing. It is a physiological process. When we hear, the auditory nerves are stimulated by sound waves. 2. Filtering. It is the elimination of unwanted stimuli. Filtering allows the listener to focus on stimuli that are of special interest. 3. Interpreting. The listener’s mind assigns meaning to the stimuli. 4. Recalling. It involves remembering at a later time the information that was interpreted earlier.
Guidelines for effective listening
1. Concentrate on the message 2. Determine the purpose of the message Cautious listening Skimming Scanning 3. Keep an open mind 4. Use feedback 5. Minimize note taking. 6. Analyze the total message 7. Do not talk or interrupt
Barriers to listening
A listening barrier is anything that interferes with the listening process. 1. Physical distractions 2. Mental distractions 3. Health concerns 4. Nonverbal distractions 5. Inappropriate timing
6. Ineffective speech characteristics