Psychotherapy is more internal, and deep. It is more focused on the past, whereas counseling is more focused on the present. In psychotherapy, insight is more important than change, and the therapist’s role is as more of an expert. Psychotherapy is also long-term, where counseling is usually more short term. Counseling focuses on the Wellness Model –understanding the person in their context (job/family/community) 3. Discuss what is meant by counseling being an Art? Even though counseling techniques can be subjective and creative like an art, is still uses technique and strategies, and has standards that must be met. 4. ACA, CACREP, NBCC, APGA.
ACA – American Counseling Association CACREP – Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs NBCC – National Board for Certified Counselors APGA – American Personnel and Guidance Association 5. 4 personal qualities counselors should have Curiosity Ability to listen and be empathetic Ability to have a conversation Empathy and Understanding Emotional Insightfulness Capacity for Self Denial Tolerance for Intimacy Comfortable with Power Goodwill – Do No Harm Self Awareness Maintaining Effectiveness Remaining Objective Accepting and Confronting Situations Ability to Laugh Intellectual Competence Energy.
Flexibility Support 6. Briefly discuss burnout and 2 ways to avoid it or lessen the likelihood it will occur Burnout is the physical, mental and emotional exhaustions brought on by involvement over prolonged periods with emotionally demanding situations and people. Understand that you are there to support the client and lead them to empowerment, not to “fix” them. Some ways to avoid burnout are to seek counseling yourself, seeking supervision and guidance, taking a break or a vacation, joining a peer support group, getting regular exercise, meditation, taking time to enjoy hobbies, and seeking support from family and friends.
Traumatic events in the counselor’s personal life may contribute to the stress felt when dealing with client issues at the same time. 7. Know terms Ethics is a discipline within philosophy that is concerned with human conduct and moral decision making and are the ideal standards expected by a profession. It governs relationships within a profession Morals are determined within a broad context of culture of society. They are our own and are often influenced by family, community and religion Laws dictate minimum standards of behavior that a society will tolerate Autonomy respects the freedom of choice Nonmaleficence Do not harm.
Beneficence Be helpful and do not blame Justice Fairness to all clients Veracity Being honest and upfront Fidelity Loyalty and faithful to what my profession dictates Vicarious Liability- individuals who have control and authority over others will be held accountable for their negligence. (Supervisor is responsible for the actions he/she supervises) Common Law laws that developed as a result of court decisions (set by judicial precident) Regulations accepted guidelines set forth by a profession Federal Laws trumps rules and is established as the minimum requirements set by the government Rules established within the system.
Tort Law law resulting from the private sector (laws that result from the suffering or harm from the private sector) 8. Be able to distinguish between Principle Ethics and Virtue Ethics Principal ethics have their foundation in moral principles, which are agreed upon assumptions or beliefs about ideals that are shared by members of the helping profession. ( “What should I do” [respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, fidelity, veracity] ) Virtue ethics involve more than moral actions; they also involve traits of character or virtue.
Virtue ethics focus on the actor rather than the action (“Who should I be” [integrity, discernment, acceptance of emotion, self-awareness, interdependence with the community]) 9. Know the reasons for ethical codes Ethical codes give our profession credibility, protects us from government interference, helps to reduce malpractice, protects the clients welfare, ensures accountability within the profession 10. Be able to discuss the 4 beliefs of counseling professionals or identify in a short vignette 1. The best perspective for assisting individuals is the wellness model of mental health.
The goal is for each person to achieve positive mental health to the degree possible. Mental health is seen as occurring on a continuum. It accounts for functioning in family relationships, friendships, career, spirituality, leisure activities, physical health, living environment, financial status and sexuality. 2. Most of the issues that people face in life are developmental in nature and understanding the dynamics of human growth and development is essential to success as a helper. Since most problems are developmental, they are natural and normal.
We all will experience certain things are different times of our lives. 3. Prevention and early intervention are far superior to remediation in dealing with personal and emotional problems. To do this, counselors provide education. Through education, the clients will have the necessary tools to meet the challenges later in life when encountered. 4. The goal of counseling is to empower individual clients and client systems to resolve their own problems independently of mental health professionals and to teach them to identify and resolve their own problems autonomously in the future.
By teaching appropriate problem solving techniques, and increasing their self-understanding, it is hoped that the client will not always need assistance. 11. Be able to identify factors that influence culture 12. Race Ethnicity Nationality Gender Age Social Class Marital Status Sexual Orientation Disability Place of Residence Language Religion Other nonvisible 13. Be able to identify the important things to consider in crisis counseling Distinguish physiological responses from gestures. – Be aware of how things like eye contact can be cultural.
Avoid using stereotypical conclusions regarding non verbal behavior Avoid imposing your values on an individual in a crisis situation ( what seems to you to be slef-defeating may actually be cultural in context) 14. Be able to identify and briefly discuss the three areas of Multicultural Competencies Self Awareness – Become aware of your own personal values, biases, assumptions Knowledge – Increase awareness of cultural values, biases, assumptions of diverse clients Skills – Develop culturally appropriate intervention strategies for diverse clients. 15.
Be able to identify and briefly discuss the assumptions regarding values AND ways to minimize imposing values on clients Be careful not to project your own values or interests onto the client. Lead them to the outcome that they are comfortable with. Be sure to take into consideration cultural influences, religious influences, etc. There is no such thing as an absolute value that exists objectively. Each person is responsible for their own values system. Acknowledge tendency to see clients as pathological when dealing with personal values. Accept clients as they are instead of sick of immoral because values systems do not conform.
Inform yourself about eh varieties of values held in society. Be aware of your own values. Present value options in an unbiased manner. Be committed to freedom of choice of your clients. Respect clients who have values different than your own. Consult others when conflict exists. Refer clients to another counselor if conflicts cannot be resolved. 16. Know Confidentiality an ethical concept that refers to the counselor’s obligation to respect the client’s privacy and to our promise to clients that the information they reveal during counseling will be protected from disclosure without their consent.
(Autonomy, respect, pledge of silence, utility) Privileged Communication a judge cannot order information that has been recognized by law as privileged to be revealed in court. Communications must originate in confidence. The element of confidentiality must be essential to the relationship. The relationship is one that needs to be carefully fostered. The injury to the relationship that disclosure of communications would cause must be greater than the benefit gained for the correct disposal of the litigation. Privacy The freedom of individuals to choose when they reveal their information.
The right to keep the counseling relationship a secret. Afforded to all individuals in the 4th amendment. 17. Know the limits/exceptions to confidentiality and privileged communication 18. Client waives privilege Does not end in death Sharing with subordinates/superiors Protecting someone in danger Counseling multiple clients (group) Counseling Minors Court Ordered Legal Protections for Counselors in dispute 19. Be able to identify potential legal issues 20. Know SOAP Subjective (“use quotes”, write whatever the client reports) Objective (info from the counselor, assessments, reports)
Assessments (impression of S and O. Does everything measure up? ) Plans (diagnosis and treatment plan with goals and objectives) DAPData (Objective information) Assessment ( counselor’s interpretation of the data) Plan (what you intend to do and what you what to accomplish) 21. Be able to discuss reasons for writing case notes and goals of writing case notes It helps to see your client as a total person. Helps to remember client details. Notes are not meant to be a transcript. It is an integrated view of the interaction. For review by many others who are in on the care of the patient.
22. Be able to identify things that might be considered “records” related to clients/students in the counseling profession Phone calls, emails, appointments, bills, parking passes, payment records, physical recordings, audio recordings, case notes 23. Know the questions to consider when writing/thinking about clinical notes Be concise. Be transparent. Don’t put something in a record that you would not want to be made public. “Just the facts. ” 24. Be able to identify who might read clinical notes Supervisors, transcribers, other clinicians, lawyers, attendings 25.
Be able to discuss problems/issues related to using various forms of technology related to information about clients/students. Security is hard to secure electronically. Files can be intercepted. Phone calls can be intercepted. FB allows for multiple people to see and access information. Confidentiality cannot be guaranteed. 26. How might you ensure confidentiality related to various forms of technology Encryption. Fax cover sheets. Getting written instructions as to how and when and where to present and what data can be presented.
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