Administer medication to individuals, and monitor the effects (ASM 34)
Outcome 1 – Understand legislation, policy and procedures relevant to administration of medication 1. Identify current legislation, guidelines policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication Health and Safety at Work Act, COSHH (control of substances hazardous to health), the Medicines Act, the Misuse of Drugs Act, the Health and Social Care Act (Regulated Activities) and the Essential Standards, the RPS Handling Medicines in Social Care Guidelines, Health Act 2006.
Outcome 2 – Know about common types of medication and their use 1. Describe common types of medication including their effects and potential side effects Paracetamol – Side effects of paracetamol are rare but can include a rash or swelling – this could be a sign of an allergic reaction, hypotension (low blood pressure) when given in hospital by infusion (a continuous drip of medicine into a vein in your arm), liver and kidney damage, when taken at higher-than-recommended doses (overdose). ferrous sulphate (iron deficiency)
– Possible side effects are allergic reaction e.g. itchy skin rash, swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat, or difficulty breathing or swallowing, constipation occasionally causing faecal impaction, diarrhoea, stomach pain, feeling sick and blackened stools. Warfarin (anticoagulant) – possible side effects are hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat, skin changes, or discoloration anywhere on your body, little or no urinating, urine being dark in colour.
2. Identify medication which demands the measurement of specific physiological measurements Drugs like insulin (blood has to be taken from a pinprick so that glucose can be measured before the insulin can be given), warfarin to thin the blood – again blood levels must be checked regularly, digoxin to slow and steady the heart (pulse should be checked prior to administration and advice taken if the pulse dips below 60 beats per minute)
3. Describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required Common adverse reactions are diarrhoea, skin rashes, sickness, facial swelling, blistering of the skin and wheezing. These can all be recognised by reading the side effects on medication packets or contacting a pharmacist. The appropriate action to take if a person supported is having an adverse reaction is to contact doctors/hospital so they can be treated appropriately.
4. Explain the different routes of medicine administration
The different routes are orally, anally and injected into arteries, veins and muscles.
Outcome 3 – Understand procedures and techniques for the administration of medication 1. Explain the types, purpose and function of materials and equipment needed for the administration of medication via the different routes Types of materials/equipment you might us and the functions; Gloves to apply cream etc to the inidividual without coming into contact with them and increase the chance of spreading infections etc. Medicine spoon/pot to make sure the right ammount is measured and the individual is not accidentaly over or underdosed. Oral syringe so you can accurately measure medicine in liquid formtissues, Eye or ear drops so you can accurately administer drops into the eye or ears quickly and easily.
Outcome 4 – Be able to prepare for the administration of medication 2. Explain the appropriate timing of medication eg check that the individual has not taken any medication recently If you look on the bottle itself it should tell you the appropriate time of day, how many to take, and it should also include a section that has warnings on it. There should also be a MAR chart in place to record what was taken and at what time to ensure no mistakes are made. Dosage cannot be altered unless a doctor alters or updates it. The person adminsitering the meds must observe the person they administer them to and ensure that they took them. Pocketing meds or refusing meds are handled according to the person’s meds and orders. Sometimes it is marked as declined / refused meds. Sometimes it is documented that they did not swallow it initially and had to be encouraged etc. or whatever happened according to the facilities guidelines.
Outcome 5 – Be able to administer and monitor individuals medication
3. Describe how to report any immediate problems with the administration You would record the problem/refusal on the MAR chart available and annotate the care plan, then inform the Home Manager or who ever in charge at that time and then perhaps discuss the issue with the service user’s GP depending on what the actual problem is.
5. Explain why it may be necessary to confirm that the individual actually takes the medication and does not pass the medication to others There could be conflict of other medication if passed on to someone else. It could cause allergic reactions, risks of overdose or even storing up of medication. You are signing to say you saw them take the medication so if you sign without being sure those records will be incorrect.
7. Describe how to dispose of out of date and part used medications in accordance with legal and organisational requirements Your home should have a policy and procedure for disposal of medication so you would ask to see it if you are not familiar with it. Lots of organisations have a Returns Book and a specific place to store medication in sealed envelopes, with name date, name of drug etc, that needs to be disposed of or returned.