1. Identify legislation that governs the use of medication in the social care settings.
The Medicines Act 1968, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (and later amendments), the Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations 1973 (and later amendments), the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974), COSHH, the Mental Capacity Act (2005) the Access to health records Act (1990), the Data Protection Act (1998) plus equality legislation.
2. Outline the legal classification system for medication.
The classification of medicines are all related to the medicines act 1968, while working with medication it is good to have an understanding and working knowledge of the common types of medication by training that should be provided by you company that you work for.
3. Explain how and why policies and procedures or agreed ways of working must reflect and incorporate legislative requirements. The polices and procedures are put in place to make sure that legislation is being followed so that all people in the setting, staff and the people who need care are being cared for are safe, all needs are being met, inclusive practise and diversity is being followed out and that the setting is staying within the law. They must reflect on legislation so that the polices and procedures are correct and are the correct way of doing things. For example if a health and safety procedure was put in place and was not inline with legislation then this could cause the setting to get in trouble with the law and could cause harm to the person who was in need of health and safety requirements could become harmed.
4. Identify common types of medication.
Antibiotics, Antipsychotic and anti depressants.
5. List conditions for which each type of medication may be prescribed?
Antibiotics – They can be used to treat relatively mild conditions such as acne as well as potentially life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia.
Antipsychotic – medications are often prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Psychotic symptoms are common in bipolar I disorder, and antipsychotic medications are the standard treatment for these symptoms. There are also some antipsychotic that have direct effects on mania and/or depression and are therefore used as mood stabilizers.
Anti depressants – Antidepressants are used to treat several conditions. They include, but are not limited to: depression, generalized anxiety disorder, agitation, obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), manic-depressive disorders, childhood enuresis (bedwetting), major depressive disorder, , naturopathic pain, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Describe changes to an individuals physical or mental well being that may indicate an adverse reaction to the medication.
Antibiotics possible adverse reactions:
bloating and indigestion abdominal pain
loss of appetite.
Antipsychotic possible adverse reactions.
Stiffness and shakiness – this can often be reduced by lowering the dose. However, if a high dose is necessary, the shakiness can be treated with the same kind of medication that is used for Parkinson’s disease. Uncomfortable restlessness (akathisia)
Persistent abnormal movement, usually of jaw, lips and tongue () Make the problem worse before it makes it better.
Anti depressants possible adverse reactions.
SSRIs and SNRIs
Common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin- reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) include:
diarrhoea or constipation
feeling agitated or shaky
not sleeping well (insomnia) or, alternatively, feeling very sleepy loss of appetite
7. Describe the roles and responsibilities of those involved in prescribing dispensing and supporting use of medication.
The prescriber must be trained appropriately (may be a GP or nurse prescriber for example) and update themselves as required by any professional body that they might belong to – prescriptions should be written clearly, ensuring the patient understands any side effects and the reasons for the prescription be given to them and how long they should take it for. Medication should only be prescribed after careful consideration of the patient’s best interests. The prescriber should have access to the most up to date version of the British National Formulary (BNF).
Dispensing must also be appropriately trained, follow safe systems of work and understand the side effects of various drugs; be able to access appropriate information and understand when to access advice or further information (the dispenser may not necessarily be a trained pharmacist but should be working alongside one). By supporting medication this is through following care plans or support plans; staying with the person to support them to take it; using appropriate equipment (spoon etc) and a drink of water or any other way to help the medication go down like a yoghurt and of course reassuring communication.
8. Explain were responsibilities lie in relation to use of over the counter remedies and supplements
Many medicines can be purchased through wholesalers and retail outlets by anyone. People may decide to buy and keep remedies to take themselves, including herbal remedies and products that they purchase from other countries. When the care provider keeps a range of ‘homely remedies’, it is care workers who will decide whether to give them to a resident or not. Homely remedies are used to provide immediate relief for mild to moderate symptoms. They are treatments that people would use themselves without consulting their GP, for example to treat toothache or indigestion.
These medicines are potent and may interact with medicines that the doctor has prescribed for residents. The care provider is under no obligation to provide this treatment. But if homely remedies are purchased for occasional use by residents, the care provider must have a written policy that details the following: • which medicines are kept for immediate relief of mild symptoms that a resident may choose to self-treat in their own home • the indications for offering the medicines
• the dose to give and how often it may be repeated before referring to the resident’s doctor • how to establish with the resident’s GP that the remedies will not interact with other prescribed medicines • how to obtain the resident’s consent to treatment that the doctor has not prescribed • how the administration will be recorded.
9. Describe the routes by which medication can be administered.
10. Describe different forms in which medication may be presented. tablet or capsule
sublingual (SL) – under the tongue
buccal – in the cheek
vaginal [per vagina (PV)] – inserted in the vagina
rectal [per rectum (PR)] – inserted in the rectum
inhalation inhaled through the nose or mouth
aerosol -spray (fluid) nebulizer – device used to produce a fine spray or mist, often in a metered dose (fluid)
intradermal – within the skin
intramuscular – within the muscle
intravenous – within the vein
subcutaneous – under the skin
Related to skin
topical – applied to the surface of the skin cream, lotion, ointment transdermal absorption of drug through unbroken skin.
11. Describe materials and equipment that can assist in administering medication.
12. Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication.
Consent, self administration, dignity and privacy and confidentiality. If someone self-medicates or is actively encouraged to participate in the whole process of taking their medication, depending on their ability, e.g. knowing when they need to repeat their prescription, knowing the time to take their
meds, or getting a glass of water to take their tablets then they are being empowered to be active in the process, not a passive recipient who has no understanding/control over a part of their life, it’s about being person-centred, doing things with the individual, promoting their independence, feelings of self-worth & esteem, hopefully less chance of mistakes being made. An individual’s right to have their dignity & privacy respected, following organisations ‘ Policies & Procedures, National Standards, Codes of Conduct, Essential Standards of Quality & Safety, this also relates to consent (Mental Capacity Act 2005) & the right to confidentiality (Data Protection Act.)
13. Explain how risk assessment can be used to promote an individuals independence in managing medication.
You have to think how a risk assessment finds the best way to manage something so that the individual is as independent as possible. For example it can find the best equipment for the individual to use to take a liquid medication foe example a spoon, cup, syringe etc so that they don’t have to rely on others. Or it can reveal the individuals ability to remember what to take and when to take it.