Once cargo has been packaged it must undergo standard checks at the inspection offices for goods entering or living the country through various shipping methods. The most acceptable measurement and inspection methods for the cargo are the sampling method. This method is preferred because it cares for both the quality of the products and total inspection cost. The method is generally timely, cost effective. The international standards of inspecting cargo universally agree on the use of sampling method to reduce the cost of inspection, if it were to be done on single entities.
More so, there are set standards and levels of specifications on the maximum errors allowed for a product packaging, (Hunt, 1989). There are limited levels of defects and variation for the quality of product. A package should not exceed the maximum errors allowed. If the level is exceeded then the product or cargo is rendered unworthy and can not be delivered to the owners due to the defects that compromise the quality of the product. The cargo at this point is said to have failed the inspection as per the set code of standards;
ISO 2859. inspection must follow the set standards regardless of whether the client request for specific tests or not. Clients are allowed to make specific test requests at will before the inspection begins, otherwise inspection will be done as stipulated. The set standards for international inspection must be adhered to by the test auditors and inspectors. Industrial standards that are legally accepted include NFK06-021/022, ANSI/ASQC Z1. 4-1993, ISO2859 (AQL Tables), DIN40. 080, ISO 14000, SA 8000, ANSI/ASQC Z1. 4/BS6001 and MIL-STD-105E/ ABC-STD 105.
Each of these standards has its own specification for which industry products must have before they are packaged. The rule is that the standards must meet the social accountability and legal standards. When the commodities are found to contain any defect they may further be classified as critical, major, or minor depending on the level of contamination or the defect. Critical defect is hazardous for human consumption or it is bound to cause harm to the product’ consumer. This affects the functionality of the intended use of the product.
When this kind of defect is detected it must be corrected. The product is not consumable under all circumstances and therefore it can not be shipped. It must be refined or discarded completely to avoid unsafe use of the product, (Dangerous Cargo Handling, 2008). On the other hand, major defects are those that may result in the interference of marketability of a product though not harmful in use. It may negatively affect the functionality of the product if uncorrected. Most clients may request for replacement if they are sold to these products.
Minor defects entail the availability of foregone substances in the commodity such that they do not affect the functionality of the product negatively. It is expected that when this product is brought to the market it may satisfy majority needs. There are three different levels of inspection used in the international cargo inspection. They are the general inspection levels; general inspection level I, general inspection level II, general inspection level III. The most commonly used inspection level is the general inspection level II, which takes audit and quality tests on the product.
There is a fourth category of inspection called the Special inspection level which is used for wider range of samples to eliminate more risks. It is used to test products that are suspected to be dangerous. General inspection level I is used for products that need less attention, it is for basic tests. General inspection level III is used for most discriminative requirements on the test samples. It uses engineering principles of testing the products’ quality. General inspection level III is time consuming and expensive though it can be used for elimination of large risk levels.
2) Interpreting the legal requirements in relation to the carriage of dangerous goods, present very different challenges for good assessment and evaluation The definition of dangerous cargo as stipulated by the international maritime law entails all substances or cargo that may harm the ship, the carriage, and other cargo that may be on board. Dangerous cargo handling required specialty and expertise to avoid hazardous events that may befall a carriage. There are examples of recent events of dangerous cargo harming the carriage.
For instance, case involving major containership subject in which, “MSC Napoli” caused real destruction and pollution to the England’s South Coast. The carriage was beached on a natural beauty scene at the Coast yet on board was dangerous cargo worth million dollars. It had on board, 1700 tons hazardous cargo whose cost is over $ 100 million. All these went in to waste and caused more destruction to the environment, (Bergendorff, S. 1998). Poor containerization causes danger to many casualties.
Massive explosions and fire outbursts are common with improper handling and outlawed procedures in dangerous cargo carriage. The international community has formulated laws and code of ethics regarding the international transportation system in which laws regarding handling of dangerous cargo have been clearly set out. This is aimed at minimizing or curbing poor handling and packaging of cargo at the terminals. This has in the past resulted in damages worth billions of money hence low economic growth and poor environmental conservation.
The “International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, the IMDG Code,” is a formulation of codes of safety that must be adhered to by any personnel handling dangerous cargo within the international community, UAE, (IMDG, 2007). This law is designed in accordance to the UAE international convention of 1974 in which signatories were signed for “Safety of Life At Sea, SOLAS. ” UAE maritime code has the provision for the carrier to destroy or remove any dangerous cargo if it deems necessary. For instance, if the cargo owner would decline ownership incase of misfortune or if there were no proper agreements for international transmanship ethics.
This cargo may be destroyed without compensation. Dangerous cargo may include explosives or highly inflammable. This is according the Article 271. In addition, dangerous cargo that has been loaded with proper consultation from the carrier, and it becomes a threat to the carriage then it can be destroyed without blame on the carrier. More over, when goods which are not necessarily dangerous are packed in the carriage and are not properly declared on the bill of lading are discovered on board, they can be jettisoned to avoid damage or fines on the cargo on board.
This is further aggravated by the condition of the goods; if the goods are legally prohibited for sale or export, they must be destroyed or offloaded from the cargo transit. According to the law, the shipper is held responsible for any irregularity on goods he delivers that are reflected in the bill of lading, (Government of Alberta, 2010). In other words, the shipper is responsible for giving the correct information on shipping particulars and will be answerable for any damage on the cargo on board or the carriage itself, unless he gives a timely notice on any kind of irregularity.
The law requires a shipper to ship only those goods that they have a clear consent of their level of toxicity and nature for which the carrier is defined. Third party who may fall victim of damage caused dangerous cargo, according to UEA law of 1985, Article 282 the civil Code shall hold the shipper responsible. This enables the shipper to ensure that they cross check their cargo and ensure that they transport only the required cargo. The shipper must ensure he does not ship wrongly described goods, since any damage caused to the cargo shall be charged on him.
The law has environmental law clause concerning the protection for environment. This is found within the federal laws of UEA of 1999, “Protection and development of the Environment. ” According to this law, omissions or acts that threaten the environment are punishable by the law, (Ziegler A. 2009). Criminal laws are also applicable in the cases where shipment of dangerous cargo causes death or injury to persons. The owner must ensure that they are authorized by the law to transact with the dangerous goods.
In other words, international law regarding dangerous cargo shipment must be adhered to, if at all persons are to be free from blame in case of danger resulting from the shipment. The principle objective and learning instructional task in both dangerous cargo handling and assessment is to ensure that personnel dealing with shipment of different good have the basic knowledge and practical application towards quality of services and safety of the sea.
The training involves important aspects like navigation, maritime laws, meteorology, and weather forecasting, watch-standing; handling small boats and ship-handling, deck operations and equipment, line handling and rope-work, communication for sails within the port, towing operations, dangerous cargo handling, attention to emergencies, storage of cargo, fire fighting and sea and is survival skills. The learning guide for cargo handling is well designed with the objective of meeting market requirements of loading and unloading of cargo.
It is practice oriented with good features of on-site training to ensure advanced training for in service training and those who intend to join the shipment crew, (Fox, N. 1997). Another objective is to train staff on high technologies of cargo assessment and test procedures with the aim promoting safety and security in cargo handling. There are different principles of assessment that must be adhered to when assessing cargo. First is the type of cargo to be shipped, the type of container or package required and legal documentation of the carriage.
Environmental conservation principled should be taken in to account when assessing the cargo and its package quality. Also safety of both the ship or carrier and the people involved as well as security of other cargo on board. Material labeling should be done conspicuously. Each type of cargo has its specification for packaging and secure material to use while handling it. Assessment is based on the general specifications found on the consignment and legislation regarding packaging and delivery of cargo from different origins and destinations.
For instance, legislative requirements set for different cargo offer restriction to certain volumes and weights below which or above which the consignment should not be signed for transit. More over, the uses of packing material which can be recycled have become a requirement for certain types of cargo. If this is not done then the consignment may not be delivered to its destination. In addition, environmentally friendly material is requiring for packaging. Assessment tests shall only allow transit of well packaged commodities and pallets that meet the quality to be delivered for certain specifications.
Packaging could be done on disposable or reusable packages for environmental safety purposes, (Devusy, et. al 1998). For instance, reusable packages may include load carrier which include flat wooden pallets, skeleton container pallets, liquid containers and universal small load carrier. The disposable packaging could include disposable pallets, disposable protective packaging, disposable liquid containers, disposable packing aids, and cardboards that are disposable. It is also required that the package be easy to clean if reusable, and easy to dispose if disposable.
This packaging must be done in accordance to the environmental law. In conclusion, cargo pallet assessment and test procedures followed International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code has defined the safety procedures for packaging and transportation of cargo. Dangerous cargo has its set laws and regulation regarding test and assessment of quality and nature of the product. The law requires those handling the cargo to be careful with every step of packaging, assessment, documentation, shipment and delivery, (Batemen, et. al. 2007).
It is required that environmental conservation is taken in to account since there are penalties associated with hazardous cargo that affects the environment upon mishandling or improper assessment and packaging procedures. There are objective for training those handling cargo of different natures and characteristics. Cargo characteristics must be defined in terms of quality and any defects found on the cargo must also be categorized to ensure corrections before repackaging. Generally, cargo handling is secured under the international law. References Bergendorff ,S. (1998). The Sky Came Down: Social Movements and Personhood in Mekeo Society.
Oceania. Vol. 69 Batemen, S. , Mathai, M. & Joshua Ho. (2007). Shipping patterns in the Malacca and Singapore Straits: An Assessment of the Risks to Different Types of Vessel: Contemporary Southeast Asia. Vol. 29 Dangerous Cargo requirements, cargo, handling Dangerous Goods: retrieved in 2010: http://web2. gov. mb. ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/d012e. php Dangerous Cargo Handling: retrieved in 29 October, 2008. http://adriamare. net/Training/courses/dangerous-cargo-handling/ Dangerous Cargo guidance Principally, Evergreen observes the IMDG. Retrieved on 01 July 2007: http://evergreen-marine. com/tbn1/html/DCGuidance. pdf
Devusy, D. , Campton, P. , Hens, L. & Nath B. (1998). Environmental Management in Practice; Volume 1: Instruments for Environmental Management -Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. Fox, N. (1997). Spoiled: The Dangerous Truth about a Food Chain Gone Haywire. U. S. Basic Books. Government of Alberta Ministry of transport: Dangerous Goods. Retrieve in 1995-2010. http://www. transportation. alberta. ca/519. htm Hunt, G. J. F. (1989) A Behavioral Approach to Instructional Design: A programmed Text. Plamerston North: Dunmore Press. Ziegler A. (2009). The Liability of the Contracting Carrier. Texas International Law Journal. Vol. 44
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