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Material Science Essay

Abstract

In this assignment I will be defining the 3 essential properties of every material and describing those. I would also be describing how silicon-based semiconductors revolutionized computing. I will also define what microchips are and how they relate to integrate circuits. Since the pressing questions about the increasing ability of computers to quickly process large amounts of information is whether a computer can be built that is considered “alive” or “conscious.” I will also be defining artificial intelligence and telling the difference between the human brain and the central processing unit of a computer.

Material Science

There are three essential properties of every material that scientists use as a foundation for most every study. First it is the kind of atoms that is made up from the material. There are the neutral elements and the compound elements. The neutral elements would have the identical amount of protons and electrons; this would essentially terminate one another, which would leave the protons and electrons neutral. The compound element is when there is a combination of more than one element. The atoms are second in the way that they are arranged. A great way to explain this is by relating atoms of liquid and atoms of solids.

For example the atoms of liquids move around allowing the atoms of solids which are packed together. The way that atoms are attached together is number three. These are the key properties when understanding the study of materials. The strong point of the material, this is the capability to endure forces being useful to it without breaking, this is first. The materials elasticity is second, which is the capability to flex while returning to its original form. Number three is the materials plasticity; this is the ability to change its shape forever.

Thanks to the starter of semiconductors, computers have developed over a billion times faster than one of the first built in 1946 (ENIAC). Describe how silicon-based semiconductors revolutionized computing. Since silicone semiconductors are capable to move easily through the solid component it is more proficient than copper based conductors. Silicone based conductor’s makes holes which produces and fills a space constantly. This means electrons jump from one atom to another. This will also change the silicon through a process called doping by adding either phosphorus or aluminum the desired effect is achieved. When adding phosphorus to silicon it develops n-type which is negative-semiconductor. When adding aluminum to silicone it develops p-type semiconductors. These are both essential parts functions efficient electrical devices microchips, which are used in computers. Microchips are positive and negative type semiconductors. Microchips do a detailed function.

A microchip is individual diodes and transistors will play a big part of the essential function in modern electronics, although these strategies have been mainly replaced by much more complex arrays of P- and N- kind semiconductors, known as microchips. Microchips may join hundreds or thousands of transistors in one integrated circuit, particularly intended to do a specific role. They are related to integrated circuits this is why. Combined circuits (microchips) are the main component in devices such as microwave calculators, and other devices. An integrated circuit microprocessor lies on modern technology. Modern technology is occupied with electrical integrated circuits. Such as, Televisions, MP3 players and computers all contain integrated circuit which allows them to perform specific functions. Also known as microchips or microprocessors, these circuits keep track of all the information being transferred within the device, in essence giving it life.

Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce are both who take credit with inventing the integrated circuit, both coming up with the idea within a year of each other while working for separate companies. Artificial Intelligence is a division of science which deals with helping machines and finds explanations to complex problems in a more human like manner. This normally contains borrowing features from human intelligence, and applying them as procedures in a computer friendly way. A more or less well-organized approach can be taken depending on the necessities recognized, which impacts how artificial the intelligent performance seems. (http://ai-depot.com/Intro.html) The 2 essential differences between human brains and the central processing unit of a computer is the brain-computer metaphor has served intellectual psychology well, research in intellectual neuroscience has revealed many significant changes between brains and computers.

Escalating these differences may be crucial to understanding the mechanisms of neural information processing, and eventually for the creation of artificial intelligence. (http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/27/why-the-brain-is-not-like-a-co/) One difference is that brains are analogue and computers are digital. For instance one of the primary devices of information communication appears to be the amount at which neurons fire a fundamentally unbroken variable. Likewise, networks of neurons can fire in relative synchrony or in relative confusion; the coherence affects the strength of the signals received by downstream neurons. Lastly, inside each and every neuron is a leaky integrator circuit, composed of a diversity of ion channels and endlessly changing membrane potentials. (http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/27/why-the-brain-is-not-like-a-co/) Another difference is short-term memory is not like RAM.

While the superficial similarities between RAM and short-term memory encouraged many early intellectual psychologists, a closer examination reveals strikingly important differences. Although RAM and short-term memory both seem to required power, short-term seems to hold only to long-term memory however. RAM holds data that is Isomorphic which is having similar appearance but different ancestry. Not like RAM, the capacity limit of short-term memory is not fixed, the capacity of short-term memory seems to vary with differences in processing speed as well as with expertise and understanding. (http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/27/why-the-brain-is-not-like-a-co/)


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