There is an interrelationship between Maslow’s theory and Herzberg’s theory. These two theories have a similarity in that both of them suggest employee satisfaction as a motivation factor. Form the above discussion, it is possible to tell that Herzberg cites esteem needs and self-actualization needs from Maslow’s theory as the motivators. Others needs do not cause motivation and failure to address them in the organization setting only leads to dissatisfaction. Criticisms Maslow’s theory Several criticisms exist about Maslow’s motivation theory.
To begin with, there is limited scientific evidence if any to support the above theory. Furthermore, personal need priorities may not be in the order given by Maslow. For example, there is a possibility of social needs coming before security needs since one must belong to a society in the first place. Another criticism is that people do not necessarily satisfy each level of need at a time. Needs tend to conflict such that a person may be motivated to achieve different needs at the same time or make priorities depending on the urgency of each need.
Maslow’s theory is therefore general and does not consider individual differences. Herzberg’s theory Herzberg’s theory does not also consider individual differences when analyzing factors that cause satisfaction and those that cause dissatisfaction. One dissatisfaction factor may be a motivator for someone else and vise versa. For example, increased responsibility could be a dissatisfier for someone who is resistant to change. Again Hertzber’s model is too simplistic and only addresses factors that people would consider normal motivational factors in any workplace setting.
Describe goal setting theory. Explain how this theory can be applied to performance appraisal and compensation This is a motivational theory developed by Edwin Locke. It is actually an improvement of the final causality theory advanced by Aristotle which put forth that purpose can lead to action. According to Locke, an individual’s behavior is to a large extent influenced by their ambitions and goals (Latham and Locke, 2002). For this reason, goals significantly improve performance. Most individuals set goals in anticipation for something; usually a reward to be obtained after achieving the set goal.
Goals can be said to affect performance in three different ways (Latham and Locke, 2002). Firstly, they narrow an individual’s attention so that all efforts are directed towards activities that are relevant to achieving the set goals. Similarly, irrelevant or undesirable activities are avoided. Secondly, goals increase effort as individuals strive to achieve the set goal so as to gain the expected reward. Thirdly, goals help individuals to develop persistence. In other words, they become more willing to work even in the midst of challenges and setbacks.
Goal setting is guided by factors known as moderators (Latham and Locke, 2002). These include goal –commitment, attainability and self-efficacy. In order to attain a certain goal, an individual must be ready to face every challenge that he or she finds on the way. Commitment depicts the need to achieve no matter what the circumstances. Set goals must also be attainable so that individuals must not set goals that cannot be reached. Finally, self-efficacy must be present for goals to be achieved. This refers to the ability to act in a certain way so as to be able to achieve set objectives.
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