1. What specific development in Hunan province reinforced Mao’s convictions about the peasantry as a revolutionary force? The peasant movement in Hunan province reinforced Mao’s convictions about the peasantry as a revolutionary force. In china, man and woman are usually subjected to the domination of the three systems of authority: the state systems, the clan system, the supernatural system, and women are dominated by man. Hundreds of millions peasants have been oppressed for thousands years. Because of the china is semi-colonial and semi-feudal country, with this very special situation the peasants overthrow the local tyrants and evil gentry with strongly anger and violence. However, the political authority of the landlord is the backbone of all the other systems of authority. Therefore, others systems would be tottering if the states system was overthrow. Mao’s thought that the millions of peasant wanted to break the trammel, and they could be a mainly revolutionary force in china.
2. What criticisms have been made of the Hunan peasant movement, and how does Mao attempt to counter these criticisms? Peasants swarm into the house of local tyrants and evil gentry who are against the peasant association, slaughter their pigs and consume their grain. At the slightest provocation they make arrests, crown the arrested and parade them though the villages. Because of these behaviors, some people call “going too far”, or “exceeding the proper limits in rights a wrong”. However, Mao Zedong said “first, for ages they have used their power to tyrannize over the peasants and trample them underfoot; that’s why the peasant reacted so strongly”. Also, Mao Zedong said the revolution was a not a dinner party or something gently. It was a storm which was from poor peasant. Without using the great force, it is not possibly to overthrow the deep-rooted authority of the landlord.
3. What can be learned from these two writings about Mao’s views of the role the communist party in china’s revolutionary struggle? Mao Zedong thought that the communist party is a leader of peasants who can help them overthrow other political systems. However, its military is very weak and small, and no any help out of china. The only advantage them have which is popular support—-all of the peasants and the people who suffers from other political systems. At present, the most important things are to defense, because there are two big enemies that are Guomingdang and Japanese. Although the communist party is weak, the party helps peasant agrarian revolution and gets the support of peasants. Mao Zedong also come up with idea “encirclement and annihilation” to establish the strategy of the communist party in china’s revolutionary struggle.
4. According to Mao, what have been the sources of oppression of the Chinese people? Once these sources of oppression are removed, what will china look like?
In Mao’s idea, these are a lot of warlords exist in china, and those would be the first source of oppression. Then Mao also talked about the guomingdang is biggest enemy of the communist party. Otherwise, china is a vast semi-colonial country which is unevenly developed both politically and economically, so there are some sources of oppression which are japan, United States, Germany, British and some countries which colonized china especial japan. Once these sources of oppression are removed, the communist party would control the china. And, every peasant can have their own land, there are no landlord, warlord, tyrants and every equally rich.
5. According to Mao, what are the four unique characteristics of china’s revolutionary war, and how do they affect Mao’s military strategy?
There are four unique characteristics of china’s revolutionary war. Firstly, china is a vast semi-colonial country which is unevenly developed both politically and economically, and there are still many warlords who control many railways and vast cities. They are hard to negotiate. Second, the guomingdang’s military is strong with arms, and it gets a lot of supports out of china such as the United States. At last, the communist party was supported by millions peasant and has great leadership.
Mao Zedong though that the communist party have to defense, because the red army is weak with no help out of china but peasants. The red army, thought small, has great fighting capacity, because its men under the leadership of the communist party have sprung from the agrarian revolution and are fighting for their own interests, and because the officers and men are very united. Therefore, the Mao comes up with “active defense “as opposed to “passive defense”. The communist party would be offensive after the red army surpasses the enemy in strength.
6. What is the characteristics Mao’s “active defense “as opposed to “passive defense”? Mao contrasted “active defense” with “passive defense”, also known as “defensive defense” or “pure defense” In Mao’s opinion, “passive defense” was actually a spurious kind of defense, and the only real defense was active defense, defense for the purpose of counter-attacking and taking the offensive. He viewed “protracted defensive resistance” as a transient measure dictated by an unfavorable balance of forces, not the core of China’s national strategy, let alone its strategic preference.
7. How do Mao’s ideas about revolution resemble and differ from those of Marx?
Mao Zedong developed his unique Chinese variant of Marxism, which was based on the promise that peasant, not the urban proletariat, would lead china to socialism. However, Marx defined class as bourgeoisie and urban proletariat, because society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps in his country. The class struggle of china is differing from Marx’s. There are some things in common between Marx and Mao, which they are the leader of proletariat and fight for the proletariat. Mao combined basic principles of Marxism and the situation of china to come up with a new system which is suitable for china.
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