Scientific management of resources in the line of production, distribution, exchange and consumption is called simply allocation of resources. The allocation of resources discussed principle of right sharing of resources among competing sectors. Whatever, the type of economy be it capitalist, socialist of mixed decision has to be made regarding allocation of resources. In a capitalist economy decision about the allocation of resources are made through the free market price mechanism. A capitalist of free market economy uses impersonal forces of demand and supply to decide what quantities and thereby determining the allocation of resources. The producers in a free market economy motivated as they are by profit consideration take decisions regarding what goods are to be produce and in what quantity by taking into account the relative prices of various goods.
What to produce?
The first concered is rated with What to produce? How much to produce? Because resources are scarce production of all goods and services needed by a society are beyond its capacity. It is simply not possible for any economy no how develop it might be. So, it has to select a set among various alternatives production must meet the maximum social need. The first priority goes to the basic needs. However, production is guided by profit and profit knows social justice. An economy should follow social efficiency while recollectiong resources. The social norms and values should guide to maximize social satisfaction so allocation is best which satisfies the most. The problem of what to produce and how much to produce depends on the necessity of the citizens of the country.
How much to produce?
The second question is concerned with the method of production. In some cases, labor may play a major role. It is called labor intensive technology. In others, capital may play a major role. It is called capital intensive. Labor intensive methods creats more jobs favouring more employment. It helps in mitigating unemployment problem. Capital intensive production goes for large volume of production. It commends rapid growth rate. The right decision on the current state of the economy.
For whom to produce?
Production for masses or production for profit are two major choices that every economy has to decide. Basic needs of common people cannot be ignored. Of course, the priority goes to wage goods production. In the quality is determined by the level of living standard, which is the outcome of the development level of the economy. Therefore, as the development level of goods, higher production of superior goods proceeds towards fetching super profits. This issue is also related with maintaining social justice. Meeting the basic requirements of all segments of population is the main criteria of resources allocation.
Promotion of Efficiency in Economy
How to run an economy efficiently is the first concern of resource allocation. Economics efficiency is measured in additional welfare achieved without worsening any result. It means that new reallocation of resource must not only be able to maintain the existing level but also achieving new heights. Alternatively, reallocation may be profitable somewhere but incurring losses elsewhere. The main objective is to increase aggregate profitability of the economy.
Balance in Economy
Another purpose of resource allocation is the maintainance of balance among different sectors of an economy. The balance between rural and urban sectors, between home consumption and export promotion, between consumer goods and capital goods and regional balance are the healthy signs of an economy. Investment in these different sectors are very important. How much to invest in what sector? This is the major question, which is studied in this topic.