Sydney has always been the destination of lesbian and gay tourists around the world to view this great spectacle at the South Pacific’s gay and lesbian capital. The Australian gay and lesbian tourism industry has always been on the go whenever the event comes into full view. The street parades and costume parties have always attracted tourists when compared to other events and affairs. Because of this, Sydney, the gay capital of the world, has changed from “an industrial port to a cosmopolitan, global capital increasingly dependent, for the last two to three decades, on an economy driven by consumption and leisure” (Markwell, 2002, p. 82).
Therefore, it is evident that the Mardi Gra contributes solely on Australia’s tourism economy, as reflected in the paper that Kevin Markwell (2002) wrote. There are tensions and demands that leak from the Mardi Gras of Sydney, and the economic impacts of big events such as this cannot be completely ignored. Mardi Gras of Australia Localization as well as globalization can create a big impact on international events and issues that surround the nations. What Markwell (2002) has called localization-globalization dynamic refers to…
[T]he way in which a local, community event has challenged and overturned social mores and legislation at the state and national levels partly through its elevation to a national and international event. (Markwell, 2002, p. 83) This has an impact on the tourism industry, as it evades traditional mechanisms and instead, focuses more on the trend and movement of a certain population, creating an ever-increasing power while affecting government intervention and legislation. The tensions and demands of the Mardi Gras
The first Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gra parade happened on the 24th of June 1978 (Markwell, 2002, p. 83). However, what was supposed to be an enjoyable event became one that was close to disaster, as the celebration turned out to be a riot “with fifty-three people arrested and several alleging vicious assaults by police” (Markwell, 2002, p. 83). There was this tension of distinguishing what exactly was the purpose of that event, especially that there were records on concealed systematic oppression, homophobia, as well as discrimination (Markwell, 2002, p. 83).
As of last year, there were approximately 10,000 people who joined the Mardi Gra of Sydney, marking the event as the biggest Mardi Gra event ever to be held in Australia (Organizers say, 2008, p. 1). According to AAP General News Wire, “Crowds of up to 300,000 people are expected to line the central city route to watch the procession of themed floats, drag queens and many more costumed and flesh-revealing revelers” (Organizers say, 2008, p. 1).
To avoid unwanted riots and insurgencies, 80 military personnel and defense force employees marched among the crowds. As stated, “Those charged will face a range of offenses including affray, assault police, possessing prohibited drugs, assault, and resisting arrest” (Mother Nature, 2007, p. 1). The demand of cleaning human debris is another demand, in addition to the demand of controlling 4,000 gays and lesbians in the event that triggered an economic relief of about $500,000 in the local economy (Bathersby, 2008, p. 1). The economic impact of Mardi Gras
In the economy of New Orleans, there is a report that the chosen event can generate more than $1 billion in annual spending, benefiting the economy and the tourism industry of the state (Mardi Gras questions and answers, 2009, p. 1). Noosa, on the other hand, will have poured about $500,000 last year as stated above (Bathersby, 2008, p. 1). By March 2009, they earned about $300,000, as stated in the report (Lander, 2009, p. 1). It is therefore, apparent that this year is approximately 60% less the earned revenue of last year.
Nevertheless, it still is helpful to the economy, earning in New South Wales an amount of about $100,000 million each year in the area of tourism (Santow, 2002, p. 1). Each state or nation earns different amounts each year, depending on the state of tourism of that state or nation. According to Simon Santow (2002) however, [T]he Mardi Gras is suffering from a combination of increased costs and falling revenue, at a time when, ironically, there’s been no significant drop in public interest.
Unless half a million dollars is found, the organization could place itself in voluntary administration, so the call has gone out for some emergency funding from the state and federal governments [of Sydney]. (Santow, 2002, p. 1) The government issues the permits in parades such as these, but there are economic impacts on big events, such as the Mardi Gras events. Focusing on the economic impact of big events
In a paper that Larry Dwyer, Robert Mellor, Nina Mistilis, and Trevor Mules (2000) wrote, they stated that, as the state government receives requests in funding special events and conventions (such as the Mardi Gra), the government focuses mainly on the alleged positive impacts of these events, especially the overall economic impact. There is a framework developed by the state of New South Wales in Australia used to estimate the economic impacts of events and conventions. This is done by using “accurate and uniform set of events or conventions expenditure as input into the forecasting model” (Dwyer, Mellor, Mistilis, & Mules, 2000, pp. 191-192).
Forecasting event-related expenditure is done by the following these steps: first is to estimate the number of inscope visitors; second is to estimate the inscope expenditure of visitors; third is to estimate inscope expenditure of organizers, participants, teams, and media; fourth is to estimate total event related inscope expenditure; fifth is to apply multipliers to estimate economic impacts; sixth is to estimate media impacts; seventh is to estimate fiscal impacts; eighth and final is the recognition of intangible costs and benefits (Dwyer et al. , 2000, pp. 192-194).Mardi Gra is a big event, and it covers some impacts on the economy and the society, as it affects the lives of people there and abroad.
Bathersby, D. (2008, March 2). Noosa set for pink invasion. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from The Daily database: http://www. thedaily. com. au/news/2008/mar/02/noosa-set-pink-invasion/. Brown, A. L. (2009, February 27). Mardi Gras boost. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from The Daily database: http://www. thedaily. com.au/news/2009/feb/27/mardi-gras-revellers-coast-boost/. Dwyer, L. , Mellor, R. , Mistilis, N. , & Mules, T. (2000). Forecasting the economic impacts of events and conventions. Event Management, 6, 191-204. Lander, A. (2009, March 9). Mardi Gras recovery on the coast. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from The Daily database: http://www. thedaily. com. au/news/2009/mar/09/mardi-gras-recovery-coast/. Mardi Gras questions and answers. (2009). Retrieved April 9, 2009, from the Compucast Interactive database: http://www.mardigrasneworleans. com/faq. html.
Markwell, K. (2002). Mardi Gras tourism and the construction of Sydney as an international gay and lesbian city. GLQ, 8, 1, 81-99. Mother Nature to star Sydney gay parade. (2007, day). NSW, p. 1. Organizers say Mardi Gras will be biggest ever. (2008, day). NSW, p. 1. Santow, S. (2002, August 1). Mardi Gras in danger. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from The World Today Archive of the ABC database: http://www. abc. net. au/worldtoday/stories/s637685. htm.