Tioman Island is a small island, 39 km long and 12 km wide, located off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, densely forested island is still be sparsely inhabited, but is surrounded by numerous white coral, making its scuba divers from around the region. The beaches of Tioman Island were depicting in the 1958 movie, south pacific as Bali Hai. In the 1970s, Time magazine selected Tioman as one of the world’s most beautiful islands.
In 2004 Kampung Tekek, a little village on Timon was earmarked for development as part of a RM 40 million marina project. The project covers 127,000sq meters. It will include a yacht marina and a cargo jetty which will extend 175 meters into the sea.
The following analysis is based on the project that includes SWOT report, opinion on why the project is rejected by the local residents and WWF-Malaysia and some recommendations
1. Conduct SWOT Analysis onto Pulau Tioman.
From the research and information reading about Pulau Tioman Island, the below is a SWOT analysis that concluded.
Fantastic natural resources and environments
The environmental protection consciousness improves of people.
Natural resources and environment destination become lesser in the world. Threat
Shifting of economic
Fantastic Natural resources and Environments
As many magazine and information said, Tioman Island has rare and precious natural resources elsewhere in Malaysia even around the world and it is one of the top 10 most beautiful island in the world. At the mountains area, Pulau Tioman is a haven for birds, bates, lizard and mouse deer. At the under water area, the huge size (over 15m high) combination of patches of coral gardens and huge granite boulders are commonly see in the Pulau Tioman Island. Beside the precious corals and sea fans, the rare kings of angle fish also can commonly see in Pulau Tioman Island.
Less polluted environment
The Pulau Tioman has mountains and beaches, and all of those natural resources and environments are undestroyed and less polluted. Whatever visitors on land or at sea side, they will be enchanted by the wonder of nature. Nowadays, in the highly speed economic developing time, fresh air, azure sky and pure ocean it is hardly to find. Such pure and natural environment makes Tioman Island become one of the best tourism destinations.
For the restless and adventurous, Pulau Tioman Island has provided many kinds of activities for the tourist, such as skiing, wind surfing, boating or a ride in a glass bottom boat around the island. Beside those water activities, the Island also has Table tennis, tennis and golf sports on land. Tourists can be enjoy the good natural environment and have a look of the natural resources in Island during the sport activities playing, they can have the opportunity to see the fascinating underwater life by Glass bottom boat and diving. Those bring benefit for the local people and it does not have seriously negative impact to the environment.
Convenient transportation system has provided to help the visitors easy to access and departure Tioman Island. From Mersing or Tanjung Gemuk, Tioman Island is just a 3 to 4 hour boat ride away. If visitor prefer a shorter comfortable ride, air-conditioned fast ferries which depart daily can make the trip in approximately 2 hours.
Visitors who don not like to enjoy sea travel can make the trip to Tioman by air from either Kuala Lumpur or Kuantan via Pelangi Air. Flights from Kuala Lumpur depart daily, while the Kuantan flight departs daily (except Wednesday), both trips take approximately 1 hour.
All of those transportation systems have made the Tioman Island has more and more visitors and become more famous around the world.
The promotion and advertising by state and country government doing for the Tioman Island is still need to improve. Maybe Tioman Island is well knows by some of the specific countries’ people. But as a world class tourism departure, the state and country government should promote the island to worldwide in order to get more attractions and bring more benefit.
As we know, Tioman Island is just 39 km long and 12 km wide. It is a very small island. With its more popular and fantastic natural resources, more and more tourists will interest and visit to here. Overload of people may stay and visit in this small place. This will affect and destroy the social culture and environment of Tioman Island. As a Government, should develop Tioman Island by proper plan in order to fully use and encourage the land limitation.
The main tourist attraction in Tioman Island is its natural environment and resources. But if government does not protect properly, those will degrade and destroyed soon later. Without the protection and carrier from government, Tioman Island will just make short-term benefit to the country and will loss its strengths, at the same times, it is a loss in the world too.
Tourism has become an integral part of the move away form economies based on heavy engineering and manufacturing to a rapidly expanding service sector. The growth in international and domestic tourism since the 1950s has been nothing short of dramatic, with international tourism arrivals climbing from 25 million in 1950 to a record 592 million in 1996 ( World Tourism Organization, 1997). Tioman Island has its fantastic resources and environment as a main attraction of tourist, the increase of world travel will bring lots opportunities to the island.
The environmental protection consciousness improves of people
Nowadays, people’s education level have been improved, and they are more attention and conscious of environmental protection. That will help Tioman Island to keep its strength and get more supporting from them.
Natural resources and environment destination become lesser in the world
Tourism industry become more and more famous in the world, at the same times, it also affects the quality of departure’s environment and degrade the natural resource. According to this, provides natural resources and environment as its attraction to tourist types of tourism departure become lesser and lesser. Tioman Island is one of the few Islands that has good natural resource, it will be a opportunity provided to this island.
Shifting of economic
As we knows that the economic is plays very important roles in tourism industry. Tourism industry mainly depends on the economic, this referring to people’s income, country’s income and the input for tourism develop and so on. Sometimes the economic situation in the world is difficult to forecast and analysis. Example: when the Asian economic crisis happened in 1997, it is not only affect the Asian country’s economic, but tourist industry got heavy hit also around Asian area.
The disasters belong to tourism industry are disease, weather, the flood, the terrorism, the earthquake and so on. All of those will affect and influence the tourism industry with heavy hitting. For example, the USA 9.11 terrorisms bombing in year 2001 was not only hit it economic, but the tourism industry in USA also was hit and affected very much. Beside this, the disease such as SARS, birds’ flu also affects the develop of tourism industry.
2. Based on the two articles above, in your opinion why the project is rejected by the local residents and WWF – Malaysia?
The Marina project in Timon is covering 12.7ha, would have yacht-docking facilities for 36 yachts, a waste oil reception facility, an administration building, ship lots and a public cargo jetty jutting 175m into the sea.
“This is a practice of all the beautiful island in the world. Even in the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, they have a marina there to regulate yachting activities and it has not destroyed the marine life there.”
“Everywhere else in the world, there are typhoons and hurricanes which make it unsafe for yachts. We are disaster free, which makes the country the destination for international yachts” said Transport Minister Datuk Seri Chan Kong Choy.
Although the project can benefit the local economic and make the destination becomes more international, but it still reject by the local resident s and WWF-Malaysia. The factors that may affect the government to reject the project are analysis as following:
Tourism and the environment, whether natural or man-made, are inextricably linked. Indeed, without an attractive environment, tourism will not flourish and remain sustainable in the long-term. Marina project is based on Tioman Island which will bring a lot of negative impacts to the island. The negative impacts on environment are show as below:
Damage to the marine life: The marina project covers 127,000sq meters. It will include a yacht marina and also a cargo jetty which will extend 175 meters into the sea. But according to the research, the corals are just two meters from the surface of the water and only about five meters form the beach line which means if the project will run it will damage the corals which is 300 years old.
Water pollution: The marina project include a cargo jetty which would have yacht-docking facilities for 36 yachts, so in the further more and more yacht and cargo will be park in the cargo jetty but at the same time it will also make the water polluted by the engines. In Tioman Island, the multitude of beautiful angelfish includes the Blue-ring Angelfish and the larger Six-banded Angelfish; both are quite common here but rare elsewhere in Malaysia. Imaging, if the water has polluted hardly, it will make those fish difficult to survive.
The marina project have using huge number of capitals and the manpower required for this subject will be the professional workers. Among Tioman Island this small island, it may have few or even do not have this required types of skills. Many local people will loss their job, for example: the fish man may have no place for him fishing and some other sellers may hardly to sell their local product due to the lesser tourist. Beside this, the noise will be create if the marina project have carried out, natural environmental defiantly will be polluted and destroyed, the local people’s life style and their income will be affected by marina project – the project just for few number of rich people in the world, compare with so many negative impacts, is this worth?
As people knows that the mission and purpose of the WWF society is to protect those endangered species and those wild places that are so vital to human planet’s health and survival. After conclude the research and analysis from the impacts in Tioman Island of Marina project, WWF-Malaysia fears and realize that if the marina project goes ahead, it would not only defy Tioman’s status as a nationally protected marine park, but would also be taken as a sign that marine park protection in Malaysia is not to be taken seriously.
“It would be an absolute travesty to destroy the very corals that the government has pledged to protect,” said WWF-Malaysia’s Executive Director Dato’ Dr Mikaail Kavanagh. “It would wipe out the natural treasures that are of huge value to Tioman’s tourism industry and would be bad for conservation and the local economy.”
So many negative impacts to Tioman Island’s Environment and Social cultures bring by Marina project, after and comparison with the benefit that marina project may made, the Government has stopped this project and due to the resources and environment distortions and degraded, WWF has reject this marina project strictly too.
3. If you are the construction company handling the marina project, what area of surveys should be done first before the actual construction? Justify your answer.
The survey stage of the planning process involves collecting data, both quantitative and qualitative, on all relevant aspects of the tourism considerations. This survey activity needs to be carefully organized to be efficiently conducted and will include field surveys of tourism attractions, activities and services, and transportation and other infrastructure; discussions with the relevant government officials, private sector representatives, and community spokesmen, review of existing documents, maps and data, and any other means to obtain the information required. Often, an aerial overview survey of the country or region is an excellent way of becoming geographically oriented and observing environmental relationships that is not always obvious on the ground.
For the marina project, the surveys from local people and Malaysia tourism development department should be done first before any actions. Construction is show as following:
As a construction company handling the Marina project, those three areas must done stage by stage before the actual construction.
1. Survey for Natural Environment
The Natural Environment referring to natural resource like climate, topography, coastal and marine areas, wildlife and vegetation and so on. Let’s look at those natural environment in Tioman Island:
Climate. Climatic patterns include rainfall, temperatures, humidity, extent of sunshine, fog, wind speeds and directions, and the seasonal variations of these factors. Climatic seasonality can be particularly important considerations of intensity and frequency of climatic hazards such as high winds and rainfall resulting of loss of life and property damage should be recorded. Pulau Tioman is a diver’s heaven, it is very necessary to know which period is the best time for the diver to dive into the sea during a year.
Topography. Topography refers to the surface features of the land, particularly the land configuration and slope, such as flat, hilly and mountainous areas, and the hydrograph of lacks, rivers and wetlands.
Wildlife and Vegetation: Wildlife is indicated by type, extent, and general location. For most wildlife, their habitat range must be considered, not only their present location. In this case, Pulau Tioman is a haven for birds, bats, lizard and Mouse Deer. So it is very necessary to know that will they bring any serious negative impacts after the project was done. For example: after the cargo jetty was build, there will have a lot of cargo park in and out in the jetty. But will the noise form the cargo’s hooter will serious disturb the birds that living in that island?
Coastal and Marina Areas: Coastal and marine characteristics to be surveyed include types of coastline with the location and characteristics of beaches, reef, offshore islands identified and also underwater sea life of coral formations, fishes, and so forth
Consideration Tioman Island is one of the most beautiful island around whole world, the mainly and most important factor should be the natural environment and environment attraction in Tioman Island. Base on those, the impact from Marina project for Environment of Tioman Island is very important. Before the actual constrictions, State government must think about: Is there any pollutions, distortions and degrade made by the project and is it worth compare to the benefit that may made.
2. Survey for Social culture and Economic
Secondly, is the marina project acceptable by the local people? Will marina project bring any profit to the locals? Marina project should be bring positive impact more than the negatives affects to the social culture and at the same times, carry out marina project should helps and promotes the economic develop of the Tioman Island.
All in all, the surveys of natural environment, social culture and economic area should and must be done before the actual construction for Marina project. After the survey, country and state government should think and analysis it, get conclusion or action plan base on the survey, weights and compare the negative and positive impacts, loss and benefit, come out with the honest and correct decision with strong support reason.