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# Magnetic Field and Average Voltage Essay

Purpose: To prove Faraday’s Law of Induction using an oscillating wand which swings through a magnetic field. In addition, we studied the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy.

Questions:

1. What are the possible errors in this experiment? There are a variety of sources of error which may have affected the results of this experiment. There could have been an error in the setup of the Rotary Motion setup or its setup within the Logger Pro program. Another issue with the setup could have occurred when using the banana plug if it was not inserted correctly. In addition, errors could have occurred during the collection of data such as not pulling back the oscillating wand properly to get an accurate reading as it oscillates between the magnet. There could have also been malfunction of the equipment which lead to errors in the results. Another important source of error is human error. We could have also made a mistake when inputting the equations into the computer in order to produce the graphs. Human error can be reduced in the experiment by one working slower, and being more attentive to the calculations after the fact.

2. Highlight the first induced voltage region and determine the average voltage. What is the average voltage of the first peak? Is it induced emf? Average voltage- sum of V9526-> 533)/8 =2.194/8= 0.274

It is induced emf at this first peak because as a whole the graph presents as a sin graph which is a characteristic illustration of induced emf.

3. Why is the sign of the second voltage peak opposite to the sign of the first peak? The sign of the second voltage peak is opposite to the sign of the first voltage peak because as the magnet enters the coil, the magnetic field within the coil is increasing which induces voltage across the coil. When the magnet gets to the middle of the coil, the magnetic field in the coil levels off, since the magnetic field is evenly distributed within the coil. As the magnet leaves, the polarity of magnetic field shifts and begins decreasing. Once again voltage is induced across the coil but it is opposite of the original voltage. Furthermore, we were dealing with alternating current which periodically reverses direction.

4. Why is the second peak voltage smaller than the first one? The second peak of voltage is smaller than the first one due to energy dissipated by the resistor and the energy lost to friction. As the induction wand oscillates back and forth, it continues to loses energy and the subsequent voltage peaks become smaller and smaller with each pass. 5. Why is the voltage nearly zero when the coil is passing through the center of the magnet? When a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, changing the magnetic field and magnetic flux through the coil, a voltage will be generated in the coil according to Faraday’s Law. The voltage is nearly zero when the coil is passing through the center of the magnet because at this point the magnetic field becomes evenly distributed or steady within the coil.

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