The field and domain of information technology is quite vast and unlimited where new developments take place to benefit mankind and to make their life easy and full of the requirements they necessitate in technological affairs. Therefore since the dawn of computers and computer science, there has been a race of different operating systems in which a few of them caught the user’s eyes and they were said to be the most facilitated and better than others.
This includes Microsoft’s Windows which is the most used and said to be the best operating systems ever designed, almost all of the computers in the world use Microsoft Windows as their default operating system but in this race of best operating systems Linux and Mac are also quite popular in the world. So, there has been a competition of these three operating system companies since their evolution leading to different products providing these software or operating systems as default systems in their products which are later on changed by the user to some other OS or remains same.
This paper would high light some of the features of Mac operating system and its properties in some of the products which are produced from the same company. Mac Operating System: Macintosh Operating System or Mac OS is the operating system used in computers and some of the devices and was made by the Apple company for their Apple Macintosh PC. It has a series of operating systems that is versions based on UNIX systems and their graphics modified and made at NeXT Software Company. After 2002 this operating system is included in all the latest Macintosh PCs and other products.
The latest system nowadays is the Mac OS X which came after Mac OS 9, that is why the Roman numeral X is used to denote tenth version and since 1984 Macintosh operating systems have been Apple’s prime OS (Singh, 30). The versions of Mac OS X have been updating since 1999 but the desktop installment versions arrived in 2001 by the name of “Cheetah” and since then the versions have been named after the big cats with the latest version being titled as “Snow Leopard”, these version have also got a certified UNIX authorization and therefore are being also run on Intel processors. The Apple Inc.
has also developed some modified and specific editions of Mac OS X so that they might be used on its customer products which include the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. It is also said that a new version would be used for the Apple TV. The different versions of Mac OS X comprise of Cheetah, Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard and Snow Leopard. There are not so many reasons due to which people go for Macintosh OS rather than Windows but the latest versions are some how said to be quite brilliant as compared to the previous ones therefore people are looking forward to make them their default operating system.
This is probably due to the fact that Macintosh is said to be only good for graphical working, also it cannot get hacked very easily due to which people use it. However the reason due to which people did not use previous versions included the facts that the software composition was very less which is a factor that affects the customer demand, probably because the system works when software applications are installed in it but it doesn’t support it well then of course people would stay away and it was also high priced as compared to other operating systems.
But the latest versions things have changed and now it offers influence of UNIX which is said to be the ease of the Mac, another factor is the ideal assimilation of hardware and software plus the well-designed interface and spectacular graphics and also this version has a well protected design. All in all this operating system is now modified for compatibility and better use for everyone (Singh, 52). Mac Memory Management:
Traditionally, the Macintosh OS made use of a memory management system which was not appreciated by the people to be used in modern era, due to which it got modified to the Mac OS X version of operating system. The basic problem that arrived in the application performance was the memory usage which was a tough task because the developers were not able to decide how the 128 KB RAM was to be used, as that was the only amount of memory storage the computer was fixed with and thus could only run one software application.
So due to the fact that there was no permanent secondary storage, the developers employed an easy system that worked temporarily but this could not cope up with the machine when it came to the designing process resulting in problems for users (Seibold, 73). So now when the Macintosh operating system is transformed and modified, this problem has been solved and the memory management, or RAM, is managed in a different way in Mac OS X than it was in previous editions.
Previously every program was allocated a specific quantity of RAM that it could use to execute and users could activate the Virtual Memory, which is when the system’s hardware space is used for the memory consumption when shortage occurs (Sydow, 82). On the contrary, Mac OS X applies an entirely diverse memory management system. Every program can make use of an approximately limitless quantity of memory, which is assigned to the application on a requirement basis.
Mac OS X can consign as large amount of a program into RAM as they can, even those parts that are not being used, so this might blow up the amount of actual RAM that is required by the system so therefore when the RAM is required, the system exchanges those programs that are not in use at the time of execution of other program. Also, if needed, the system will ultimately assign extra virtual memory so that the user may not be disturbed and change the system’s setting that might reset the settings, on the other hand, there is no replacement of installing additional physical RAM (Negus,64).
The majority of the Macintoshes formed in last past years had the size of 128 or 256 MB of RAM which is supposed to be there as according to the Apple company the minimum requirement of RAM to run the operating system is now 128 MB however even with 128 MB RAM the system is not going to be very fast but would show some reluctance in running properly so it is said that the user might upgrade, or better say, should upgrade it to either 256 MB RAM or 512 MB which is now very easily available and can provide a brilliant speed and productivity (Pogue,40). Now with the modern and new version 10.
6 or better known as “Snow Leopard”, the memory management is getting higher due to the graphical requirement and better resolution of pictures and colors therefore as nowadays quite large amount of RAM is being used in computers this version has a higher demand too for the RAM. Preliminary, Mac OS 10. 4 that is the “Tiger” the minimum requirement of RAM was expended up to 256 MB of RAM therefore the new Macintoshes came installed with 512 MB of RAM because it is said that the computers or systems which have a minimum requirement of 256MB needs to have an at least 512MB RAM to run properly.
Same is the case with Mac OS 10. 5 (Leopard) which has a requirement of no less than 512 MB of RAM, so majority of users would switch to 1 GB of RAM to make it work properly as less than 1 GB would demand virtual memory condition making the system slow (Gruman & Butler, 90). Therefore an amount of 2GB RAM is required for the Mac OS X “Snow Leopard” to work properly and this is due to the proper memory management that is required for the system as the software nowadays are quite large in size and therefore need a lot of space on memory and on hard disk too. Mac Kernel:
The operating system of Macintosh is based on kernel computing system which in simple terms is the main unit of the computer or central processing unit of most of the PCs and operating system; it is a connection linking applications and the genuine information processing made at the hardware stage, the kernel’s duties comprise of running the system’s resources that is the contact between hardware and software sections. Generally being an essential module of an operating system, a kernel supplies the lowest-level concept layer for the system things that function software have got to control to carry out its task (Levy, 20).
In Mac Operating system tasks are completed in a different way by diverse kernels, depending on their design and implementation. Mach or Mac is an operating system kernel made and modified at Carnegie Mellon University for the purpose of supporting the operating system investigation, principally for circulated and parallel working of computers which is said to be the most primitive illustrations of a microkernel and now today we find it in the modern operating system kernel in Mac OS X. Mach was brought as a substitute for the kernel version of UNIX, for a purpose that no innovative operating system would have to be premeditated around it.
Nowadays additional investigational study on Mach seems to have finished, however its derived editions are used in some of the business operating systems, like NeXTSTEP and most particularly Mac OS X which uses the XNU OS kernel. The virtual memory management system of kernel was also implemented in UNIX systems, however Mac OS X maintains offering microkernel Inter-Process Communication for application purpose (Davis, 64). The Macintosh Company or the Apple Company uses XNU as its primary computer OS kernel for bringing into play in the Mac OS X operating system while the acronym for XNU is “X is Not Unix”.
This was initially made by NeXT for the NeXTSTEP OS, while XNU at that time was a fused kernel due to the combination of two versions of kernel system, that is, it contained features of both colossal and micro kernels. Therefore it has many features that other kernel systems may not provide due to the fact that it is a mixture of different kernel systems. Also as the technological era modernize the studies and experimenting have made this kernel even better (Robbins, 50).
The UNIX memory management and Mac Kernel are sort of linked together because these all system operations of Mac OS are based on UNIX style therefore all the memory management is some how same with some differences of virtual memory allocation and styles through which “kernel panic” may be restored which is an issue that is faced by UNIX-style operating systems for example Mac OS X, due to which the system might stop or restart abruptly while now the new kernel based Mac OS X shows the warning of this issue and tells the user to safely restart or turn of the system (Rothman & Jepson,80).
Therefore these are the features that Mac Kernel comprise of and Mac OS X “Snow Leopard” is surely being used nowadays especially on the products of Apple Inc. and some other systems of Intel processors. Conclusion: With the advent of different operating systems the technological era is getting more and more competitive and every company is in the race to provide the customers with better operating systems. However when we talk about Apple Inc. then it is understood that Mac OS X would be the most probable operating system to suit it, however even now it is said that Microsoft Windows is being used more than any other operating system.
But it is understood that new modifications would definitely bring the boost that the Macintosh Company and Apple Inc. are looking forward to. Works Cited Davis, Guy H. Mac OS X System Administration. 1st edn. USA: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2010. Gruman, Galen & Butler, Timothy. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Bible. 1st edn. USA: Wiley, 2009. Levy, Steven. Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. 1st edn. USA: Penguin, 2000. Negus, Christopher. MAC OS X UNIX Toolbox: 1000+ Commands for the Mac OS X. 1st edn. USA: Wiley, 2009.
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