Task 3: Explore the factors affecting long haul destinations P3&M115% still in November.ase .er numbers in the future as security tightens further to keep up with the constant threat of att Many things will affect people’s decision to travel, the destinations they choose and for how long they stay. Different destinations are affected by different factors, here we will explore these factors and the destinations they effect.
Time Zones & Length of flight
All journey times are given in local time which incorporates any addition or subtraction for GMT. This can cause confusion when working out journey times. There is also daylight saving to take into account, British Summer Time (BST) is when the clocks go forward on the last Sunday in March – all other countries use daylight saving too. New York are behind 5 hours this is expressed as GMT-5
South Africa is 2 hours ahead this is expressed as GMT+2
An inconvenience of time zone changes during travel is fatigue caused by jet lag, this is the effect unusual rapid change has on the body’s internal clock. This can make you feel tired and unwell which, if you are travelling for pleasure especially, you may be disappointed to start your holiday this way. Another worry of long haul travel is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) caused by long periods of inactivity, this can easily be combated though by regular leg stretching whilst flying. An example of this could be flying from the UK to Australia. As this is such a long flight, around 24 hours (not including the stop over) and with a time difference of around 11 hours, jet lag is a major factor for anyone making this journey as is the threat of DVT.
Seasonality & Extreme Climactic Conditions
Seasonal weather differs between destinations, as the northern hemisphere (UK) has its cold winter in the second half of the year, while the southern hemisphere (Australia) has its warmer ‘summery’ season during this time. This affects tourists for many reasons. Most people will do the most holiday travelling during the warmer months or ‘peak’ season, although this is usually more of an attractive idea, it is usually a lot more costly. Seasonal public holidays can also effect travel, in countries where the winter season is the off peak time of the year meaning travel bookings are usually cheaper, public holidays such as thanks giving, Christmas and new year can make travelling at certain times during this season very expensive.
Another effect of seasonality is restricted travel caused by bad weather. Restricted travel is a regular problem in countries with high rain fall, snow fall and other adverse weather. In 2011, seven of the nine provinces of South Africa were affected by extreme flooding caused by excessive rainfall leaving 100 people dead and thousands homeless. The effects of disasters like this can be devastating to the travel industry as people begin to view the affected destination as unsafe so opt for other destinations with a lower risk factor.
Africa in 2011 due to excessive rainfall her adverse weather. . in the year meaning for the most part Extreme climactic conditions such as monsoons, hurricanes and other forms of tropical storm can also have dramatic effects on peoples travelling habits so certain destinations. Extreme climactic conditions affect many parts of the world in different ways. For instance:
In Southeast Asia between May and October is the monsoon season – This mix of torrential rain and gale force winds effects 1/3 of the world’s population each year and has had devastating effects. Although this is a beautiful part of the world and popular with tourists, many people would consider when they travel there due to the weather risks. In the USA many states have been effected by hurricanes. The most recent of these was hurricane Sandy in October 2012, the most destructive storm in the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, the largest Atlantic hurricane on record and the second costliest hurricane in American history.
The human cost of this horrific hurricane was a death toll of 285, also leaving thousands homeless. This horrific storm cost the tourism industry in the area hundreds of millions daily in lost revenue and repairs, and spanned the 450 mile long Boston to Washington DC corridor, which is the most densely populated such stretch in the U.S. and is the location of the country’s most densely collected tourism infrastructure. Many holiday makers and travellers were put off greatly from travelling to this part of the USA, in October 2012 hotels saw a 25% decrease in their occupancy rate and 15% still in November.
Ruleslimactic conditions affect many parts of the world in different ways.tinations sk factor. by excessive rainfall leaving 100 po of entry for foreigners vary from country to country. One entry requirement that is now common place with most long haul destinations is a visa. A visa is a stamp in your passport that permits you to enter a certain country for a certain period of time. There are different types of visas depending on the purpose of your visit e.g. work, student or holiday. For some, the visa process is fairly straight forward and not to costly, however the process and fees are determined by things like where you come from, your personal back ground and which country you intend to visit. Up until 2013, in the UK the process for Chinese visa applicants was very costly and complicated. The chief executive of British Airways announced in 2012 that the complicated process for Chinese nationals was deterring them from visiting the UK and as a result, the British economy was suffering with 149,000 Chinese nationals visiting the UK in 2012 compared to the 1.1 million that visited the Schengen area.
The Chinese visa process was simplified in 3 ways. The first, Chinese travel agents can now send the UK application as part of the Schengen visa application instead of two separate forms, to reduce duplication as many people travelling from china will not travel solely to the UK. The next, a 24 hour superior priority service and finally a mobile visa service cutting the entire process time to less than 5 minutes. This has already made a significant difference in the number of Chinese tourists arriving in the Uk with figures for the first half of 2015 up 4% on the same period of the previous year.
Although this example is based around a relatively specific group of people, it demonstrates how the visa application process can heavily effect tourist habits to a destination. Another common entry requirement in certain parts of the world its of the world are vaccinations. To some people, vaccinations are simply a necessary evil in the process of travelling abroad and one which a lot of people are happy to accept as part of their journey if it means they will be protected against deadly diseases and sickness. However, there are people who are put off greatly by the idea of having to have shots to go on holiday. For instance, to enter Brazil 7 immunisations are required; hepatitis a, hepatitis b, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, typhoid and yellow fever.
In July 2014 fighting broke out following a long conflict between Israel and Gazza. Since then and still now there are restrictions in place affecting travel to the affected areas which include parts of Israel, Egypt and Syria. Due to the unpredictability of the security situation, people are strongly advised not to travel to the area at all. Another type of travel restriction is what we are allowed to pack in our suit case. Following terrorist attacks such as 9/11 and other security threats, what some view as harsh restrictions have been placed of the things we are allowed to carry with us on an airplane. Other causes for this are natural, such as in Australia where the rules on food items and natural material being brought into the country are very strict this is due to the threat of parasites, bugs and diseases that are not present in Australia being brought in and infecting crops etc.
Certain countries have strict rules about what they can eat due to religious and cultural tradition, these people may be put off travelling to Australia if they could not bring certain food items with them or risk facing a heavy fine if they try. As security measures at airports tighten, passengers begin to ask if their rights are being infringed upon in the attempt to keep us all safe. In October 2010, the Daily Mail reported on the outrage felt by passengers regarding the new pat down and search techniques being used in airports across the world. After the prsvious disgust at thAfter the previous disgust at the x-ray body scanners that are able to see through clothing, passengers are now given the choice of the new pat down search instead.
The new procedure has been described as invasive, passenger rights groupsed as invasive and are saying it could become a moral issue. A regular female flyer from Florida said she felt helpless and violated and that the process left her in tears. With technology advancing, security measures must be constantly updated and tightened. Such extreme measures as ‘naked’ x-ray scanners and invasive body searches are relatively recent as the threat of attack becomes more apparent but will we see a decline in passenger numbers in the future as security tightens further to keep up with the constant threat of attack? mes more aparent of attack s searches and the fear over the threat of terrorist attack Safety
Safety is one of the main factors for people when making travel arrangements. Many of the issues I have written about such natural disaster, international conflict and infectious diseases affect the safety of a place and therefore peoples decision to travel there. Something which has become more and more of a worry to people traveling is terrorism. The terrorist bombings at the Boston Marathon on 15th April 2013 had a short term effect on tourism but will cause increased security at future events. Although the immediate effects of the bombings were mostly economical, the tourism industry was affected, the city of Boston was brought to a stand-still, with people unable to get in or out.
Flights were cancelled and delayed while low level air space was closed while police searched for the bombing suspects, dinner and hotel reservations were cancelled affecting the hospitality trade, as a large area in the heart of such a big city was closed off while the events were under investigation, businesses in the area suffered, having to close, thus causing implications for the local economy. Tour operators and travel agents suggest that there is no lasting impact on the tourism industry and that people are still happy to visit and remain in the city and the marathon organisers expected the event to take place as expected the following year. A news report in July 2014 by the Economist outlined the effects seen by the Kenyan tourist industry after 2 nights of terror attacks carried out by Islamic extremists left 65 people dead. Tourism in Kenya, which accounts for 15% of the nation’s GDP, has been left in tatters after warnings from UK and other foreign governments prompted tour companies to evacuate tourists from the resorts of the tourism hot spot Mombasa, operators say it will take years to restore confidence in the region.
Pandemics and the threat of international infection affect the travel industry greatly as when a destination is deemed unsafe to enter all non-emergency travel is halted. In February 2014, Ebola broke out in West Africa and soon after all non-emergency travel into the affected areas was stopped to stop the infection spreading. Ebola has claim almost 2000 lives to date and could potentially kill 90% of those infected. Some countries have now relaxed their Ebola related travel restrictions although despite the improvement of the outbreak and its transmission in affected countries, many places continue to enforce travel restrictions for safety reason, with many airline totally suspending travel to a from Sierra Leon, Liberia and Guinea. Many other countries located close to the effected are also have entrance restrictions in place.
In December 2014 the Daily Mail published a report attempting to reassure tourists that areas such as the Gambia are totally unaffected by the Ebola outbreak and are still safe to visit as usual. Since the outbreak, the Gambia in west Africa has seen a 50% decrease in charter flight compared with the previous year as terrified holiday makers turn their backs on the region over fears of infection and the tourism industry in the area has been brought to its knees despite the fact the country does not even border the affected areas and the UK government have declared the Gambia an Ebola free zone. Speaking in the report Dr Marina Novelli, reader in the School of Sport and Service Management at the University of Brighton, said panic caused by misinformation has had a huge impact on tourism in Ebola-free countries. DR Novelli urged holiday makers not to be discouraged from travelling to the Gambia saying if the area was not safe to visit she would not have travelled there.
Difference in culture can also effect people’s decision to travel. People who live in western countries such as the UK and Europe might have quite a culture shock when visiting other countries whose traditions and customs are upheld so strongly. In 2013 Russian president Vladamir Putin passed a law which means now foreign tourists could be subjected to the same anti-gay rules as residents. Gay (or pro-gay) tourists can now be arrested and detained for up to two weeks before being sent back their home countries. This will drastically affect the decision for members of the gay lesbian bisexual transgender community to travel to Russia in the future.
In July 2013 a news report by the gay star news documented how 4 Dutch tourists had been the first tourists to be arrested for ‘gay propaganda’ under the new anti-gay law. One of those arrested was councillor for the Dutch groen links or green party of Groningen Kris Van der Veen. Van der Veen and his party were believed to be visiting the county making a documentary about gay rights in Russia. After the arrest the 4 tourists were detained awaiting trial in Moscow. After trial, the possible punishment they could expect for their ‘crime’ could be as much as a hefty fine and two weeks detention in a Russian prison before being deported back to the Netherlands.
On the 11th Marsh 2011, an earthquake hit off the pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan causing an undersea mega surge with tsunami waves. It was the most powerful earthquake ever to hit Japan and the fourth most powerful in the world since modern records began in 1900. The final report confirmed 15,889 deaths, 6150 injuries and 2601 people missing, as well as 127,290 building totally collapsed. The earthquake and tsunami caused heavy structural damage to roads and railways in the north of Japan.