In this chapter one of the most important early steps in a research project is the conducting of the literature review. This chapter will explain how review of related literature is very important in conducting a study. This is also one of the most humbling experiences you’re likely to have. Because you’re likely to find out that just about any worthwhile idea you will have has been thought of before, at least to some degree. A literature review is designed to identify related research, to set the current research project within a conceptual and theoretical context. The greatest emphasis on research journals that use a blind or juried review system. The literature review will help to find and select appropriate measurement instruments. It will readily see what measurement instruments researchers used themselves in contexts similar to the study. Finally, the literature review will help to anticipate common problems in the research context. It can use the prior experiences of others to avoid common traps and pitfalls.
2.1 Related Literature
The Department of Education said Monday “it’s all systems go” for the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE), adding that it expects some 1.5 million fourth year high school students from both public and private schools to participate. “The annual conduct of the NCAE gives the students and the parents an idea on the field of endeavor most suited to the graduating students thus, allowing for better decision on their choice of career,” Education Secretary Jesli Lapus said. A major part of the exam consists of the general scholastic aptitude test. It also measures a graduating student’s potentials or inclination in such areas as technical-vocational aptitude, entrepreneurial skills, nonverbal ability and occupational interest.
The test components are: scientific ability, mathematical ability, reading comprehension, verbal ability, manipulative skills, clerical ability, non-verbal ability and entrepreneurial skills. The exam results are at best recommendatory and are not a requisite for admission to college. There were 717,232 students or 58.62 percent who obtained high aptitude in entrepreneurship. Some 20,307 students with high general scholastic aptitude scores and 22,879 students with high results in technical-vocational aptitude became eligible. (James Konstantin Galvez, n.d.)
It says in the article that the assessment exam will determine which career path is best after graduation from high school based on the individual test results. The examination will also minimize the mismatch in career choices and skills that has affected many college graduates who were not well advised about what career path they should take.
*PMA exam passers eye academy’s 300 slots.The 942 passers of the recent Philippine Military Academy (PMA) entrance exams will still have to battle it out to make it to the 300-strong cast of final cut and fulfill their dreams of being a member of the PMA Class 2013. The PMA entrance examination is the just first step of a highly competitive process for cadet aspirants in the PMA. To secure a slot in the academy, examination passers will then have to overcome the rigid and complete physical fitness test and medical examination set in early October. But the good news is PMA’s officials are reportedly planning to talk with the Armed Forces of the Philippines general headquarters to extend the final cut qualifiers by 30 to 50.
Those who will qualify the second stage will be notified by the PMA thru mail, while the complete list of passers will be published in some major national broadsheets and at the PMA website at www.pma.ph. And although the exam is just the beginning, PMA Supt. M/Gen. Leopoldo Maligalig appreciated the 18-percent passing rate this year, only a whisker ahead of last year’s 16 percent. Records show that applicants from Baguio registered the highest passing percentage in the entrance exam at 27 percent with 133 passers. There were 8, 449 regulars and 1,834 walk-in applicants nationwide but only 5, 777 have qualified to take the entrance examinations.
5, 652 completed the battery test in mathematics, English and special PMA aptitude test. PMA, considered the country’s top military institution, has been accepting more than 10,000 to 12, 000 applicants in the past years. Academy’s information officer Lady Capt. Agnes Lynnette Flores, however, noted that there has been a decrease in the number of aspiring cadets as a result of PMA’s more rigid training intended to maintain its reputation of producing high-quality cadets and future true leaders.“The program is also geared to insulate PMA cadets from politics and to mold them into constitutional soldiers who must defend the fundamental law of the land at all costs,” she said.
*MMDA chief: Address job mismatch. Saying the education system is failing to produce the skills needed by the private industry, Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Chairman Bayani Fernando yesterday called for joint public-private collaboration to address the problem of job mismatch. “The government, schools and private business should get together for an exchange of views on dominant and emerging jobs and the skills needed to fill the jobs,” Fernando said. He suggested human-resource planning to forecast the demand for and supply of critical skills. The planning could be done on an industry basis. Fernando proposed that companies provide the necessary training and retraining, while colleges and universities review their curricula to offer business-friendly courses.
The government should also enhance its free training program through the Technical and Skills Development Authority (Tesda) by opening more training centers in rural areas and strengthening its vocational training program. Current opportunities, Fernando noted, are in the fields of information technology, retail, manufacturing, tourism, hospitality and accounting, adding that the call center industry has an opening for at least 60,000 jobs this year. Fernando said the Philippine economy should also continue to grow in order to provide more better-paying jobs that would entice Filipinos to stay in the country. While overseas Filipino workers are providing billions of dollars in remittances for the Philippine economy, their absence in the country also contributes to the brain/skills drain and to dysfunctional families, he observed. Local industries have estimated incurring an additional P1 billion for recruiting and training new workers to replace those who have left to work abroad.
DepEd asked not to rank schools in NAT. The Federation of Association of Private Schools and Administrators (FAPSA) is asking the Department of Education (DepEd) not to rank schools in the National Achievement Test (NAT), saying it is not a healthy competition. “Our group would not mind the intention of Secretary (Jesli) Lapus provided the outcome would not be published,’’ he added. Kasilag made the appeal after the DepEd administered the NAT to sixth graders and second year high school students last March 5 and 12. “The conduct of the test had paved the way for ingenious access to leakage.
Former DepEd secretary Raul Roco had admitted that questions and answers could bought in the provinces,’’ he said. Kasilag said the NAT, being the precursor of NCEE in the 90’s then NEAT and NSAT in 2000, was the same exam for whose abolition his group lobbied for. Roco abolished the NCEE in a bid to allow more students to enter college. He cited the case of a female student in his school (St. Nicholas school in Marikina) who failed to graduate as valedictorian because she didn’t do well in NEAT exam years back. “The mother asked “why should a day’s exam matter most over the entire six years of study in elementary? Schools already have 4 periodicals, 10 monthly tests, countless quizzes and daily assignments, are these not enough?’’ he said. (Shianee Mamanglu, March 18, 2009)
The ranking of schools in a publication had proved to be divisive and resulted in unhealthy competition among private schools. Schools that lagged behind prepared rigorously to recover at the expense of regular academic curriculum. Ofcourse, if the result is published it will only cause disgrace to the schools. The conduct of the NAT is not reliable enough to assess the total performance of students, since students, particularly those from the provinces, can buy questions, answers and grades.
*Mandatory psych test for leaving OFWs opposed. “We will also stage various mass actions in national level in the coming weeks to show Malacanang and the House members that there is indeed clamor for this,” he added. Basas, however, expressed appreciation to Secretary Lapus and the entire DepEd in lobbying for the immediate approval of the proposed bill. He also lauded the Senate for the immediate approval of its counterpart proposed law in the Upper Chamber. TDC claimed that since 2001 public school teachers had only two salary increases amounting to P2, 000 combined. Mandatory psych test for leaving OFWs opposed.
Manila, Philippines — A coalition of migrants’ rights organizations has opposed the proposal to make psychiatric examination mandatory for leaving overseas Filipino household service workers. Ellene Sana, executive director of the Center for Migrants Advocacy (CMA), said the proposal was made by the Department of Foreign Affairs, citing a study by the Department of Health of mental cases among overseas Filipino workers. She said they got the information from Poe Gratela, private sector representative to the governing body of the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), during a consultation meeting on August 6. In Resolution No. 05, Series 2008, the Consultative Council on OFWs (CCOFW), of which CMA is a member, argued that this mandatory psychiatric exam only for household service workers is discriminatory, will be an additional cost to OFWs, and does not guarantee objectivity.
*The council also said the test presupposes that the root problem is the workers’ psychiatric disposition. It said this presumption is “unfounded and illogical.”“Sound psychiatric test results of a worker cannot guarantee one’s sanity because there are simply too many aggravating factors such as work environment, cultural differences, language barriers, and emotional stress that affect OFWs’ physical and mental conditions,” it said. The council pointed out data which shows that 78 percent of the household service workers deemed mentally unfit were deployed in the Middle East.
This indicates that “what is needed is for the government to look at the working conditions in the Middle East of the household service workers, and not these workers’ mental states,” it said. Instead, the council proposed that the government administer mandatory psychiatric examinations to all government personnel deployed overseas “to determine their psychological and emotional preparation for overseas assignments, particularly, in handling cases of workers in distress.”
*Aside from CMA’s Sana, the other signatories to the resolution are: Fr. Savino Bernardi of the Apostleship of the Sea, Fr. Edwin Corros of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines’ Ecumenical Commission on Migrants and Itinerants, Luis Andres Maya of the Scalarini Center for People on the Move, Fr. Fabio Baggio of the Scalabrini Migration Center,Gwendolyn Valencia of the Philippine Migrants Rights Watch, Carmelita Nuqui of the Development Action for Women Network, Gina Espinosa of Kaibigan Inc., Francisco Aguilar Jr. of the Fil Migrant Workers Group, Mildred Yamzon and Dr. Gloria Itchon of the Women in Development Foundation, and Luther Calderon of Kampi.
*Naveed Azim and Imran Naqvi and Kashif ur Rehman. Learning of student can be assessed by objective type and subjective type questions. Educationists and behavioral scientists declare subjective writing skills essential for senior management positions. Investigation revealed that IT professionals who qualified through objective type online examination and lack subjective writing skills could not earn rise in career to top management positions easily.
The study considered ability of a student to express knowledge subjectively as the independent variable and higher management position requirements as the dependent variable. It hypothesized better the student of higher level education in his/her subjective expression, more considerable s/he will be for positions at senior management in business organizations. The study selected 100 private companies engaged in the field of Information Technology (IT) in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan who seek OCP or MCSD or MCSE certified professionals.
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2.2 Related Studies
*According to Wikipedia, “A test or an examination (or “exam”) is an assessment, often administered on paper or on the computer, intended to measure the test-takers’ or respondents’ (often a student) knowledge, skills, aptitudes, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). Tests are often used in education, professional certification, counseling, psychology (e.g., MMPI), the military, and many other fields. The measurement that is the goal of testing is called a test score, and is “a summary of the evidence contained in an examinee’s responses to the items of a test that are related to the construct or constructs being measured.” Test scores are interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of subjects.” (www.wikipedia.com)
According to Lee J. Cronbach, “Test aid in making many sorts of decisions, including selection and classification of individuals, evaluation of educational or treatment procedures, and acceptance or rejection of scientific hypothesis.” (Essentials of Psychological Testing, Cronbach, p.18)
According to Wikipedia, “An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site. It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional bulletin board, and a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system. From a technological standpoint, forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content. People participating in an Internet forum may cultivate social bonds and interest groups for a topic may form from the discussions. (www.wikipedia.com)
According to WORDIQ, ”An Internet forum, also known as a message board or discussion board, is a web application that provides for online discussions, and is the modern descendant of the bulletin board systems and existing Usenet news systems that were widespread in the 1980s and 1990s. An Internet forum typically exists as part of a website and invites users to start topics and discuss issues with one another. Sometimes, a forum even comprises most, if not all, of the content of a site. Compared to wikis, Internet forums don’t allow users to edit the forum posts of other users; however, administrators and moderators generally have the capability of doing this“. (www.wordiq.com)
College student retention programs tend to focus primarily on students in their first and second year of college as this is the time when the greatest number of students withdraws from postsecondary education (ACT 2004). Such programs vary substantially in design and execution. Examples include: Early alert, assessment, and monitoring systems to identify students at risk of dropping out for early intervention; Freshman Seminar; and HORIZONS. Organizational Theory practices, designed to create an institutional culture conducive to student retention, are another means of encouraging college student retention.
Improving college retention rates may have broad impacts: students who complete college degrees have been found to be less likely to need the support of social services, generate higher tax returns, put less stress on the criminal justice system, and have better health status and improved parenting skills. Expected Beneficial Outcomes, Increased college retention rates, increased graduation rates, Evidence of Effectiveness
ACT-Student Retention 2004 indicates that emphasis on retention strategies over the past several decades has not had a substantial impact on college retention overall. However, such programs have been effective in some venues and for some students: Dale 1995 reports that 85% of students participating in HORIZON, a Purdue University based student retention program, were retained compared to only 47% of non-enrollee peers. Participants indicated that belonging to a support network, having assistance with effective study methods, and tutoring were most important to their decision not to leave school.
According to Wikipedia, “Career assessments are tests that are designed to help individuals understand how a variety of personal attributes (i.e., interests, values, preferences, motivations, aptitudes and skills), impacts their potential success and satisfaction with different career options and work environments. Assessments of some or all of these attributes are often used by individuals or organizations, such as university career service centers, career counselors, outplacement companies, corporate human resources staff, executive coaches, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and guidance counselors to help individuals make more informed career decisions.”