lit·er·a·ture (ltr–chr, -chr) noun. 1. The body of written works of a language, period, or culture. 2. Imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value:”Literature must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the findings into a unity” (Rebecca West). 3. The art or occupation of a literary writer. 4. The body of written work produced by scholars or researchers in a given field:medical literature. 5. Printed material: collected all the available literature on the subject. 6. Music All the compositions of a certain kind or for a specific instrument or ensemble: the symphonic literature.
1. written material such as poetry, novels, essays, etc. , esp works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest 2. the body of written work of a particular culture or people Scandinavian literature 3. written or printed matter of a particular type or on a particular subject scientific literature the literature of the violin 4. printed material giving a particular type of information sales literature 5. the art or profession of a writer 6. Obsolete learning 1. writing in prose or verse regarded as having permanent worth through its intrinsic excellence.
2. the entire body of writings of a specific language, period, people, etc. 3. the writings dealing with a particular subject. 4. the profession of a writer or author. 5. literary work or production. 6. any kind of printed material, as circulars, leaflets, or handbills. 7. Archaic. literary culture; appreciation of letters and books. | literature – the humanistic study of a body of literature; “he took a course in Russian lit. literary study – the humanistic study of literatureliterature – creative writing of recognized artistic value| |
| literature – published writings in a particular style on a particular subject; “the technical literature”; “one aspect of Waterloo has not yet been treated in the literature”piece of writing, written material, writing – the work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect); “the writing in her novels is excellent”; “that editorial was a fine piece of writing”literature – creative writing of recognized artistic valuehistoriography – a body of historical literature| | | literature – the profession or art of a writer;
“her place in literature is secure”profession – an occupation requiring special education (especially in the liberal arts or sciences)literature – creative writing of recognized artistic valueTypes of Literature: Fictional Literature Drama: Drama is the theatrical dialog performed on stage, it consists of 5 acts.
Tragedy, comedy and melodrama are the sub types of drama. e. g William Shakespeare, an Elizabethan dramatist composed the plays Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear that are famous because of its combination of tragedy and comedy. Problem play, farce, fantasy, monologue and comedy of manners are some kinds of drama.
Tragedy: It is a story of the major character who faces bad luck. Tragedy, elements of horrors and struggle usually concludes with the death of a person. The Illiad and The Odyssey by Homer are the two famous Greek tragedies. Comedy: The lead character overcomes the conflicts and overall look of the comedy is full of laughter and the issues are handled very lightly.
The elements used in the comedy are romanticism, exaggeration, surprises and a comic view of life. Melodrama: Melodrama is a blend of two nouns – ‘melody’ and ‘drama’. It is a musical play most popular by 1840. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is one of the most popular plays describing cruelty of labor life.
It has happy ending like comedy. Tragicomedy: The play that begins with serious mode but has a happy ending is tragicomedy. Prose Literature History, journalism, philosophy, fiction and fantasy writings, scientific writings, children’s literature authors and writers are included in Prose Literature. Myth Myths are the fairy tales with lots of adventure, magic and it lacks scientific proof.
Nursery rhymes, songs and lullabies are forms of myths that strike the interest of children. Creative and nature myth are stories of the stars and moon. Magic tales are wonderful tales of quests and fantasy. Hero myths are ideal heroes of adventure. Short story The small commercial fiction, true or imaginary, smaller than a novel is known as short story. Short stories are well-grouped that followed the sequence of easy and no complexity in beginning, concrete theme, some dialogs and ends with resolution.
They are oral and short-lived which have gossip, joke, fable, myth, parable, hearsay and legend. Novel Novel can be based on comic, crime, detective, adventurous, romantic or political story divided into many parts. The major kinds of novels are: Allegory: The symbolic story revolves around two meanings. What the writer says directly is totally different from the conveyed meanings at the end. Political and Historical allegory are two forms of Allegory.
Comedy: Satire is very common form in comedy novels and tries to focus on the facts of the society and their desires. Epistolary: The collection of letters or mails is the epistolary novels. Samuel Richardson’s Pamela and Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrew are the few examples of Epistolary novels. Feminist:
These types of novels are written by women writers around the world to describe the place of women in a male dominated society. E. g Virginia Woolf’s “A Room of one’s Own”. Gothic: Gothic fiction is the combination of both horror and romance. Melodrama and parody were grouped in the Gothic literature in its early stages. Ironic: Ironic novels are known for excessive use of narrative technique.
It is satire on the contemporary society about cultural, social and political issues. Realism: The realistic novels are based on the truths of ordinary society and their problems. It focuses on the plot, structure and the characters of the novel. Romance: Love and relationship topics are handled optimistically in the romantic novels. It originated in western countries; basically the story revolves around love affairs of main characters. Some popular sub categories of romantic novels are paranormal, erotic, suspense, multicultural and inspirational romance. Narration: In narrative style, writer becomes the third person who narrates whole story around the characters.
Naturalism: Naturalism is based on the theory of Darwin. Picaresque: It is opposite to romance novels as it involves ideals, themes and principles that refuse the so-called prejudices of the society. Psychological: It’s the psychological prospective of mind with a resolution. Satire: Satirical novels criticize the contemporary society. The most famous novels are Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726), Kingsley Amis’s Lucky Jim (1954), George Orwell’s Animal Farm and Randell Jarrell’s Pictures from an Institution (1954). Stream of Consciousness: James Joyce’s stream of consciousness is all about the thought coming up in the minds of the readers.
A novel also constitutes categories on social and political aspects like proletarian, psychological, protest novel, government, didactic, materialist novel, allegorical novel, novel of engagement, naturalistic novel, Marxist novel, radical novel, revolutionary novel, anti-war novel, utopian novel, futuristic novel, anarchist novel, problem novel, social philosophy novel, novel of ideas, problem play and speculative novel.
Folk Tale Folk Tales are traditional stories that have been creating interest since ancient times. The children and old persons like religious story, magic and superstition as well. Fable, tall tales, cumulative, trickster and proverbs are the sub categories of folk tales. Mythology or legend is the ancient religious stories of origin and human civilization such as story of Robin Hood. Types of poetry
Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected in the tranquility. Greek poetry is found in free verse and we have rhymes in the Persian poem. Are you wondering how to write a poem, here are the followings forms of poem? Sonnet: Sonnet is the short poem of 14 lines grouped into Shakespearean and Italian sonnets.
Ballad: The poems that are on the subject matter of love and sung by the poet or group of singers as telling readers a story. Elegy: This type of poem is the lamenting of the death of a person or his near one. Elegy Written in Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray is one of the famous poems marked as sad poems of the ages. Ode: Ode is the formal and long poem serious in nature.
Allegory: Allegory is the famous form of poetry and is loved by the readers because of its two symbolic meanings. One is the literal meaning and another is the deep meaning. Epic and Mock epic: Epics are the narrative poems that convey moral and culture of that period. The Odyssey and Iliad are one of the largest philosophical epics written by Samuel Butler. Rape of the Lock is the great mock epic focusing on the minor incident of cutting of a curl. Lyric: It has Greek origin that gives a melody of imagery. It is the direct appeal of a poet to the readers about any incident or historical events. Lyrics are most of the time similar to ode or sonnets in the form. Nonfiction Literature:
Nonfiction Literature is opposite to fiction as it is informative and comprises the interesting facts with analysis and illustrations. Main types of Non- fiction literature Autobiography and Biography An autobiography is the story of the author’s own life. ‘Family Life at the White House’ by Bill Clinton is focused on his life and achievements. ‘Wings of fire’ by Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Mein kampf of Adolph Hitler are the autobiography books on real life. Essay Generally the authors’ point of view about any particular topic in a detailed way is an essay. Essay has simple way of narrating the main subject; therefore they are descriptive, lengthy, subject oriented and comparative.
Different types of essay: Personal essay, expository essay type, response essay, process essay, persuasive essay, argumentative essay, critical essay type, interview essay, reflective essay type, evaluation, observation essay, comparison type of essay, application essay, compare and contrast essay and narrative essay type. Literary criticism It is the critical study of a piece of literature. Here critics apply different theories, evaluation, discussion and explanation to the text or an essay to give total judgments. Plato, Aristotle, T. S. Eliot, Saussure and Frye are some of the famous critics. Travel literature It is the narration of any tour or foreign journey with the description of the events, dates, places, sights and author’s views.
Francis Bacon’s natural philosophies in the middle of Seventeenth century is one famous example of travel literature. Diary Diaries are the incidents recorded by the author without any means of publishing them. It is the rough work of one’s daily routine, happenings, memorable days or events in their life. E. g. Anne Frank’s ‘Diary of a Young Girl’ was published by her father in 1940s; it’s a story of a girl trapped during German invade Amsterdam. Diaries consists of business letters, newsletters, weather listing. In today’s world of Internet, writers write in blogs, forums, polls and social networking sites to convey their thoughts. This also is a form of diary writing.
Some profound forms of diaries are online diary, travel, sleep, tagebuch, fictional, dream and death diaries. Journal Journal is one of types of diaries that records infinite information. They are of following types: Personal: It is for personal analysis. In this journal one can write his goal, daily thoughts, events and situations. Academic: It is for students who do research or dissertation on particular subjects. Creative journals: Creative journals are the imaginative writing of a story, poem or narrative. Trade: Trade journals are used by industrial purposes where they dictate practical information. Dialectical: This journal is use by students to write on double column notebook.
They can write facts, experiments, and observation on the left side and right side can be a series of thoughts and response with an end. Newspaper It is a collection of daily or weekly news of politics, sports, leisure, fashion, movies and business. Magazine Magazines can be the current affairs or opinions well collected covering various content. Frame Narrative The psychoanalysis of human mind is present in a frame narrative. Here we find another story within the main story.
Some of the popular narratives are Pegasus, Wuthering Heights, The Flying Horse, The Three Pigs, A Time to keep and the Tasha Tudor Book of Holidays. Outdoor literature Outdoor literature is the literature of adventure that gives whole exploration of an event.
Exciting moments of life such as horse riding, fishing, trekking can be a part of literature. Some outdoor books are ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’ by Mark Twain, ‘Treasure Island’ by Robert Louis, ‘Voyages’ by Richard Hakluyt and ‘A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush’ by Eric Newby. Narrative form of Literature Today we find movies, audio and video CD’s and Cassettes that present current literature in use.
Digital poetry is an upcoming trend too. Comic books, cartoons, eBook and Internet games are the learning methods for children. Literature includes centuries, human nature, cultures and souls. Isn’t it? Read more at Buzzle: http://www. buzzle. com/articles/types-of-literature. html|