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Linguistics Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Developing Oral Language Summary

Oral language and written language are essential skills that are needed for comprehension. Comprehension is defined as an understanding of oral and written language. In order for a child to comprehend what they are reading, several factors must come into play. Reading and decoding the words effortlessly without errors is the main step toward comprehension. When a child is reading text, they are experiencing phonemic awareness by sounding out the words in their mind. Writing is the next step toward comprehension. Writing goes hand in hand with reading. When a child is writing, they are also sounding out the words in their mind. Adults play a huge role in how children develop oral language skills. Automatic language is part of…

The Benefits and Downsides of Intermingling Languages

While bilingualism has always been an object of interest and thorough research for scientists of various fields, mixing languages had been, until the last few decades, cast aside as its defective by-product. However, recent linguistic studies show that intermingling languages should not be considered an ill-conceived overlapping tendency that implies carelessness and a improper use of language, but a linguistic phenomenon with its own intricate rules and purposes. The addition of objectivity towards this subject has enabled linguists to describe in length the downsides and benefits of intermingling languages. None of the pros and cons can be treated with absolute certainty as language mixing itself is often subject to different interpretations. The term ‘intermingling languages’ is sometimes replaced with ‘code…

Literature: Meaning of Life and Personal Relationship

Describe your personal relationship to literature and to reading. Begin by considering the meaning of literature. What does the term literature mean to you? What makes something literary in your own mind? If literature means different things to different people, who defines what is and what is not literature? My personal relationship to literature and reading is a feeling of event as if you are living in the same thought process of the writer, or either you liReading is one of my hobbys. Its alwaqys important for me to know what I am reading about because its lets me voceriate what the author is trying to say. Next, reflect on your relationship to reading and literature. What kind of reading…

Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Two English Learning Visual Advertisements

It was not until the advent of “new media age”, which by definition involves prevailing digital-mediated communication modes and substantial usage of multiple semiotic resources combined in the realization of discourses, did the mainstream preference of monomodality unprecedentedly challenged (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2001). Language, as one of the semiotic resources, is by no means the only carrier to realize discourses. Diversity should be acknowledged in the current age when visual, audio and other kinds of semiotic resources are convenient and efficient in delivering the abstract discourses concept into expressions (Kress, 2003). The present study will base its analysis primarily on the multimodal discourse analysis framework and visual grammar proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen (1996, 2001), as an application…

Technical Communication

Chapter 1. Introduction to Technical Communication. Communication is the exchange of thoughts, message or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Derived from the Latin word “communis”, meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distance in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Technical Communication would mean a communication specific to the sender and the recipient and both would be from the same field…

Assessing Writing Skills in a Communicative Paradigm

Communicative Language Testing is intended to assess learners’ ability to using the target language in real life situations. Its now ten years since Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has been introduced in secondary English curriculum of Bangladesh. Therefore, the test of English at the SSC level is now facing the challenges of assessing learners’ communicative skills. This study looks at the existing model of the SSC English test and explores the possibilities of incorporating a more communicatively based test format. The study is carried out on the basis of an evaluation of the test items on writing skills set in the SSC test papers. It also explores the views of Bangladeshi secondary English teachers and internationally renowned Language Testing Experts. In…

Stolen: Indigenous Australians and Optimistic Tone Ruby

Australia is a well known for its bad treatment towards the indigenous population. The policy to take children away from their parents was a cruel decision made by the people. The play, ‘Stolen’ by Jane Harrison shows the suffering caused by the policy. Line up 1 and the scene ‘Adult Flashes’ which shows the great hardship of the children. The emotional experience to the audience that Jane Harrison wrote about showed the hardship of the Stolen generation. Dialogue reveals how spoken language expresses meaning not only at the spoken level but also through the implied meaning. It can be said that what’s left out of a conversation is sometimes more important than what is put in. Jane Harrison’s Stolen is…

Improving Speaking Skills

This article examines the different circumstances under which infant and adult learners develop speaking skills. We will see the facilities or difficulties in both cases in order to focus on the real possibilities of adults to develop a high level of speaking proficiency. We will see what the role of the teacher is in order to improve the learners’ skills, the features of oral communication that need to be improved and which strategies can be used to overcome the difficulties. Key words: speaking skills, adult learning, oral communication, teaching strategies. Resumen Este articulo analiza las diferentes circunstancias en las que ninos y adultos desarrollan las destrezas orales. Veremos las facilidades y dificultades en ambos casos para asi centrarnos en las…

Learning English as Second Language

Learning a Second Language (L2) is a lifelong process and it is often a challenging experience for L2 learners. English has become the L2 after it was introduced to Malaysia during colonization. Presently, it is an international language and is used as the language in international relations, and in exchanging knowledge and technology. It was only since a few decades ago that it was taught to almost all schoolchildren. In general, local Malaysian students have been exposed to eleven years of learning English language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in primary and secondary schools. Current era, good English writing competence is widely recognized as an important skill for educational, business and personal reasons. The ability to write effectively in…

Psycholinguistics: Linguistics and Language Production

Psycholinguistics studies the relationship between language and mind. It studies how are language and speech acquired, produced, comprehended, and lost. Language acquisition and language dissolution happen over time or diachronically. While language production and comprehension happen at a certain point of time or synchronically. Firstly, this paper will talk about language acquisition. Children are a focus of attention and affection in all societies. They go through many stages in language acquisition such as crying, cooing, babbling, first word, birth of grammar and childish creativity. During the very first few weeks of a child’s life, crying is his only way to show what he needs. Crying is unaffected by intentional control from the nervous system, which is responsible for human behavior….

Korean College Students Reading Strategies

1. INTRODUCTION Korean universities take a variety of different approaches to ensure college students obtain a strong level of English proficiency during their education. This is why many university English classes use authentic literature written for native English speakers. There are a variety of used resources; journal articles, research reports, thesis, online catalogues, databases, and internet materials. The number of English professors and universities that prefer to use authentic material is increasing. Reading authentic English text can be a burden for EFL learners. Kern (1994) mentioned that understanding texts written in a foreign language is a significant challenge for most students. To understand texts,a majority of readers not only translate a foreign language into their mother tongue, but also use…

Semasiology: Linguistics and Grammatical Meaning

By definition Lexicology deals with words, word-forming morphemes (derivational affixes) and word-groups or phrases. All these linguistic units may be said to have meaning of some kind: they are all significant and therefore must be investigated both as to form and meaning. The branch of lexicology that is devoted to the study of meaning is known as Semasiology. Semasiology from Greek word sēmasia (“signification”) + logos (“account”).The branch of lexicology which is so called semantics semiotics, semology, the philosophical and scientific study of meaning. It is difficult to formulate a distinct definition for each of these terms because their use largely overlaps in the literature despite individual preferences. Semantics is a relatively new field of study, and its originators, often…

The True Meaning of the American Dream

The American Dream has been all about a greater national vision, however as time has progressed, the American Dream has shifted from a greater national vision to individual material success. These cultural aspects of the American Dream complement each other and have an underlying relationship. One often “…winces a bit…” at the phrase the American Dream “… because it has become such a cliché.” (Source 7) Everyone does not know the true meaning of the American Dream because one interprets it in their own way. But the true meaning of the American Dream is that it is the dream of opportunity. The American Dream accentuates a greater national vision because it is the opportunity for something that will not only…

Myths and Narratives: The Origin of the Humanities

One thing I remember from when I was young, is Two little dicky birds sitting on a wall One called Peter, one called Paul, Fly away Peter, fly away Paul, Come back Peter, come back Paul. Two little caterpillars sitting on a leaf, One called Brian, one called Keith, Two little butterflies flying through the air One called Brenda, one called Blair. There actually is a distinction between reading a article and telling a story. Most mature individuals employed with young children will read publications and tales to the juvenile persons in their charge. Somehow, they appear to believe that it’s simpler – that the publication is a security bedding in case they overlook the story. But it is not…

Literary Standards

There are generally considered to be seven standards a piece of literature should abide to in order to be considered ‘literary’. If a piece of writing is considered ‘literary’ this usually suggests that it is a scholarly article or classical writing that is extremely well written and is very informative. Literary writing can be intellectual and contain a lot of cleverly hidden meanings which ensure the writing can be enjoyed and studied on many different levels and often still enjoyed many years after it was written. Many people believe that literature cannot be defined and literary theory should simply be thought of as way of interpreting both texts and events. The seven standards that a piece of literature usually contains…

Theoretical Grounds of Characteristics

Introduction Language is an integral part of social human being and indispensable condition of existing of modern society. The history of its development maybe began with the foundation of linguistics; after all, linguistics itself has only been established in its present form for a few decades. But people have been studying language since the invention of writing, and no doubt long before that too. As in many other subjects, the use and then the study of language for practical purposes preceded the reflective process of scholarly study. In ancient India, for example, the need to keep alive the correct pronunciation of ancient religious texts led to the investigation of articulator phonetics, while in ancient Greece the need for a technical…

Importance of Knowing Grammar to Students

“indeed.” Grammar is the backbone of a language and without it any single thing you know may be flux, in a sort of jelly without much consistency. In a nutshell, grammar provides you with the structure you need in order to organize and put your messages and ideas across. It is the railway through which your messages will be transported. Without it, in the same way as a train cannot move without railways, you won’t be able to convey your ideas to their full extension without a good command of the underlying grammar patterns and structures of the language. I understand that many students ask this question simply because in their own experience they have always been presented with two…

Contrastive Lexicology

1. Lexicology and linguistics. Contrastive lexicology, object, aim, and tasks. 2. The history of contrastive lexicology, main units and terms. Ukrainian scientists, manuals, observing. 3. Language and vocabulary. The branches of Contrastive Lexicology. 4. Structural aspects of a word: External and Internal structure. Scientific methods to leant English and Ukrainian words in Comparison. 5. The semantic unity of a word. Polysemy: types of semantic component. Sema, Semema, semantic field. 6. The main scientific aspects: syntagmatics and paradigmatics in Contrastive lexicology. 7. Contrastive lexicology and Lexicography. 8. Structure of the vocabulary of modern English and Ukrainian. The main groups of words. Colloquial words, the main stock of English and Ukrainian Vocabulary. 9. Morphemic structure of a word. Morpheme. Allomorph. Morph. 10….

Sociological Principle of Language Teaching

A theory of language based on J. L. Austin’s How to Do Things with Words (second edition, 1975), the major premise of which is that language is as much, if not more, a mode of action as it is a means of conveying information. As John Searle puts it, “All linguistic communication involves linguistic acts. The unit of linguistic communication is not, as has generally been supposed, the symbol, word, or sentence, or even the token of the symbol, word, or sentence, but rather the production or issuance of the symbol or word or sentence in the performance of a speech act.” Meaning, then, should be regarded as a species within the genus intending-tocommunicate, since language itself is highly complex,…

Thesis- Vocabulary

Introduction “The limits of my language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what I have words for.” – Ludwig Wittgenstein Active communication in English is what counts in today’s globalized world. It is very important to have large deposit of words. O’Connor explained why large vocabularies characterize executives and possibly outstanding men and women in other fields. The final answer seems to be that words are the instruments by means of which men and women grasp the thoughts of others and with which they do much of their own thinking. They are the “tools of thought.” The benefits of effective communication are many and obvious in many aspects of life. Vocabulary is the total number of…

Your Personal Sales Letter – The Cover Letter

The need to accompany a professional resume with a cover letter is as basic as offering a handshake, signing a card, saying thank you or the greeting at the beginning or end of a phone call. All may be taken for granted as a common courtesy, but you can be assured that by omitting any of the above, you will miss an opportunity to generate a positive and lasting impression. A cover letter sets the stage by enticing the reader with a personal connection and a professional introduction that is expected when submitting a resume. A generic letter addressed to the “resident” or a cover letter addressed “to whom it may concern” or “Senior Marketing Manager” is no match for…

Characteristics of Effective Technical Writing

Technical writing is meant to get a job done. Everything else is secondary. If the writing style is interesting, so much the better. There are 6 basic characteristics of technical writing: 1. Clarity: The written document must convey a single meaning that the reader can easily understand. Unclear technical writing leads to wasted time, money and resources. 2. Accuracy: This means to not only be careful to avoid errors in recording facts; it also means freedom from bias or subjectivity. If readers suspect you are slanting information by overstating the significance of a particular point, they have every right to doubt the validity of the entire document. 3. Comprehensiveness: A comprehensive technical document provides all the information its readers will…

Gender Speech Community

Abstract This research paper will focus on the human language. Human language is extremely significant for all peoples. My main topic for this paper is how we use and develop language, the production of language, language acquisition and the importance of the critical period. Chomsky, Skinner, and Whorf all had various theories on language but all had one major thing in common, which was the significance of language. Regardless of when or how language is developed; it is essential to have living in environment where every one using language to talk, learn and receive knowledge. The Ways in Which People Use and Develop Language and The Effects it May Have on a Person If a person does not develop oral…

The object of grammar

Two types of grammar: normative, theoretical. Two parts of grammar: morphology, syntax. Grammar is a branch of Linguistics which studies the grammatical structure of language. The grammatical structure covers the rules of changing words and rules of arranging the forms of words into phrases and sentences. Grammar may study the gr. Structure of a language in different aspects. So? We distinguish: – historical grammar which describes the str. of words, phrases, sentences in the process of their historical development; – comparative gr. which deals with comparison of gr. systems of different languages; – descriptive gr. analyses the gr. system of a language as it exists at a certain period of time. Grammar is divided into 2 types: Normative and Theoretical….

Linguistic Changes of an Individual in Migration

As the world becomes increasingly globalised, we observe a rising trend where individuals migrate for educational and economic opportunities. The prestige of being educated in a highly ranked university and the prospects of higher paying jobs are definitely important pull factors for both internal and international migration (Welch, 1970). When people move, they also transfer the use of their existing linguistic repertoire to their host country. However, what might have been effective at home might be interpreted differently when placed in different socioeconomic contexts. Hence, the relative value of linguistic repertoire one possesses and how mobile are one’s language skills in the world determines how a migrant interacts with a new community. Consequently, this paper seeks to provide insight on…

English Exit Exam

My writing journey this semester has been a roller coaster. Since the beginning of this course I have improved in so many different areas. When I first began in this class, I didn’t have a clue how to start my essays. I wasn’t very good with being descriptive either. On top of that, revising was something I hated to do. My writing process was very messy and organization was never something I considered when writing a paper. Since taking this class my skills in organization, revision, and description have improved tremendously. I wasn’t a big fan of drafting before I started this class. My writing process has always been all over the place. I could be writing paragraph one and…

Syntax and Semantics

In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages. It does so by evaluating the meaning of syntactically legal strings defined by a specific programming language, showing the computation involved. In such a case that the evaluation would be of syntactically illegal strings, the result would be non-computation. Semantics describes the processes a computer follows when executing a program in that specific language. This can be shown by describing the relationship between the input and output of a program, or an explanation of how the program will execute on a certain platform, hence creating a model of computation. Semantics reveals the meaning of syntactically valid strings in a language….

Language Acquisition

Refer the theories of language acquisition (Behaviorist theories, nativist theories and interactionist theories) and write an evaluation of them.Consider the stages of language acquisition in the evaluation of these theories. Human language development is a huge debate between Nature Vs Nurture within theorists of various fields in psychology.There are three major schools of thought that will be mainly focused on; behaviourist, nativist (rationalist) and interactionist(cognitive and social). The cognitive approach and social context of language development is known as interactionist approach as the language depends upon the child having interaction with its physical and social world. The Behaviorist approach to language acquisition: The behaviorist theory was developed in the early twentieth century. The theory was developed as a protest against…

Main Problems of Lexicology

Lexicology is the study of words-their menanigs and relationships. * English vocabulary is one of the most extensive amongst the world’s lang.contains an immense number of words of forerign origin. * lexicology has to study the etymology of word,e.g.their origin, their development and function * And English is lang.which had changed a lot in a short period of time * So, lexicology has to deal with all the changes in grammar and the vocabulary. WHY ARE WORDS BORROWED FROM 1 LANGUAGE INTO ANOTHER 2 Borrowing is a consequence of cultural contact between two language communities. Borrowing of words can go in both directions between the two languages in contact, but often there is an asymmetry, such that more words go…

The Main Theories in Second Language Acquisition

1. Introduction The language produced by learners learning a second language is extremely varied. It can range from one learner to another in regard to many factors. These variations can be accounted for by a number of ideas including: first language (L1) interface, age differences, motivation, self-confidence, aptitude, anxiety, gender and social distance. In this essay I will define SLA and then outline five of the main linguistic theories. These outlines will form the basis for my analysis of the differences in language that are produced by learners. Finally, I will consider what level of impact these theories have and how they can account for these differences and, the many difficulties and successes that learners have on their way to…