This paper will discuss the life of prophet Mohamed which will span from his birth to his calling and mission. The kind of persecution he faced from the time of his ordination or revelation to his time of manifestation when he conquered Mecca (makkah), his character in morals and his teachings. What influence he had in the growth of Islam as a religion. Introduction Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 CE in a place known as Mecca (makkah). His fathers name was Abdullah who died in a place known as Medinah weeks before Mohammad was born.
His mother also died when he was six years old while travelling from Medinah in a place called Abwa. This forced Mohammad to be raised by his paternal grand father whose name was Abd al Muttalib for a period of around two years, after which his grandfather died. By this time he was aged eight years old, his uncle Abu Talib took care of him hence forth. His grandfathers mother (his great grand mother) who went by the name of Salma was a native of Medinah, she raised and brought up the grand father to Mohammad in Medinah before his uncle Muttalib decided to bring him to Mecca.
The uncle to his grandfather had for years established himself as an Arab leader in Mekkah hence the need to groom Mohammad grandfather as a successor. He was a leader of the Arab people and had the role of taking care of the holy sanctuary ‘ka’bah, Mecca was a city that joined other big trading countries like Syria, Yemen and Egypt. Thus Mohammad can be said to come from an established family of leaders and traders. His lineage though can be traced from the descendants of prophet Ismail through his son second Kedar.
(Armstrong 1992). Adult Life Under the guide of his uncle Abu Talib, Mohammad became a trader and earned his living from business activities by the time he was twelve years old he had started cruising the east for merchant caravan trips with his uncle, Mohammad acquired a good reputation known of his good character and trust worthiness in his business. (Ali 1997). Through his good reputation he was able to get the attention of a rich merchant widow by the name of Khadijah, who contracted him to transport her consignment to Syria.
At the age of twenty five Mohammad got married to Khadijah, khadijah was older by fifteen years and had been widowed twice. Through their marriage they were able to get six children, four daughters and two sons. Unfortunately his son Qasim died at the age of two years his nick name was Abul Qasim whose meaning is the father of Qasim, his second son died in infancy he was named Abdullah his nick name was Tayyab this was because he was born after Mohammad’s prophet hood. His four daughters were named as Zainab, Raqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah.
By the time Mohammad received his revelation of becoming a prophet the holy shrines at ka’bah the holy sanctuary was filled with a hundred and sixty idols, the ultimate message from prophet Ibrahim was corrupt and lost this was done through beliefs in superstations’ and traditions of pilgrims from distant lands. Although this did not affect ardent followers of prophet Ibrahim’s and Ismail’s teaching whom through each generation they segregated themselves in the hills in pursuance of their true religion.
(Ali 1997). The Revelation Mohammad was one of them and at the age of forty during his many retreats to segregated place of worship at Mount Hira during the Ramadan period he received his first revelation from angel Jibril (Gabriel). He was instructed to read by the angel but since he had no formal education background he replied and said he couldn’t read this prompted angel Jibril to embrace him and after releasing him Mohammad still couldn’t read.
This process of embracing was repeated thrice after which the angel commanded him through Allah’s might to recite through the name of the lord who created man from that which clings, the lord who taught man what he knew not. After this experience Mohammad was petrified and fled from the mountains. When he reached home he asked his wife to cover him from the world using a blanket, this was due to fear. According to the Quran this revelations started in the year 610 CE they are found in Surah in the first five verses. (Armstrong 1992).
After awhile Mohammad became abated and was able to discuss his cause of being frightened to his wife Khadijah, she counseled him by telling him not to be afraid because he was a kind man to his relatives, orphans, he was truthful, thus Allah would not leave him, and he would stand by him. His wife khadijah, then sought the wisdom of her cousin Waraqa who was old and wise having ability to translate the holy scriptures and revelations. Waraqa confirmed that Mohammad was the expected prophet as according to the scriptures and he ascertained that the angel who had visited Mohammad was the same one who had visited Moses that is angel Jibril.
Khadijah his wife was the first person to accept Islam thus she became the supporting pillar to Mohammad his husband and prophet, this she did earnestly especially during the three year period that the prophets clan of pagan Quarish boycotted the religion. Unfortunately khadijah died at an advanced age of sixty five during the period of Ramadan soon after the boycott was lifted in the year 620 CE. (Ali 1997). Angel Jibril continued to visit Mohamed revealing the will of Allah; this was done through signs which are referred as verses.
These revelations came inform of verses at times as chapters and at times they came as nonbelievers questioned him on his beliefs. These revelations were then recorded on available materials the believers were then asked to recite and memorize the teachings. The recording and arrangement of verses took a period of twenty three years. Although the holy book is not recorded in the words of the prophet since they come from the first persona who is Allah. Angel Gabriel guided him and taught him strategies on how to go about the completion of the prophetic mission.
Prophets Mohammad own sentiments are recorded separately in a collection known as the Hadith. His Mission His main mission as a prophet was that of restoration, of worship of one true God Allah, who is the creator and sustainer of the universe, he mandated his teachings to be continuation of other prophets such as Moses, he was also delegated the responsibility of ensuring the human race practiced good ethics, morals, legal and social conduct according to gods will. Other ardent followers to his teachings were his cousins Ali, his servant Zayd Ibn Harinth his friend Abu Bakr and his wife and daughters.
They accepted Islam by testifying tat there is no deity except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. (Armstrong 1992). In the first three years of his mission he was able to convert forty people into professing Islam this was no easy task as he was being tortured by the Quarish people in mekkah, his uncle Abu Lahab and his wife were among those people who resisted him and many Quarish leaders advised his uncle to stop his nephew from his mission by offering him kingship but Mohammad was not perturbed.
This made the Quarish to start persecuting Muslims by beating and torturing them, this was done through boycotts targeting their businesses; those who were either weak or poor were tortured publically with no mercy. The prophet was publically denounced and humiliated this was done through at times being hauled with filth while he was praying in the streets. All that kept the Muslims and the prophet vigilant was patience which they practiced without the thought of retaliation to their persecutors. Though this persecution persisted and all that Mohammad could do is advice the Muslims to flee to Abyssinia modern day Ethiopia in Africa.
The Quarish didn’t take this move very nicely thus they persuade them to Ethiopia but the host gave the Muslims a protective arm after realizing that they prophesized on Jesus and Mary him being a Christian he embraced them. After the death of khadijah Mohamed then married two other wives Sawdeh who was a widow and Aisha the daughter of his friend Abu Bakr. They lived in Medinah. In 622 CE the Quarish leaders developed a ploy to kill the prophet, but their plan was foiled by angel Jibril visiting prophet Mohamed and instructed him to leave mekkah immediately, Abu Bakr accompanied him during this escapade.
They went south of mekkah to the caves he later sought refuge in Quba on the suburbs of Medinah. His head was offered at the price of hundred camels dead or alive by the Quarish leaders. Though all was not well because they fought many wars with non-believers at Medinah, during this wars many women became widows thus the prophet opted to marry several other women in his sixtieth and seventieth year of his life. After this a revelation was made on the number of wives one was to marry, this was defined though he didn’t divorce any of his wives being that all of them were either widows or divorcees accept Aisha.
During the year 629 CE Mohammad went to pilgrimage in mekkah though he faced some difficulties with the Quarish leaders, they later agreed through an agreement, this was violated again by the same Quarish leaders who attacked allies of the prophet this prompted the prophet to help. (Armstrong 1992). Return to Mecca Prophet Mohammed marched gloriously into mekkah with an army of three thousand Muslims plus ten thousand others that joined him on the way; they conquered the holy city and lived there.
All the idols at ka’bah were destroyed and once again it was cleansed from ungodliness brought by foreigners. Though the Mekkans expected that they would face wrath from the prophet, but he pardoned them. The whole of Arabia then accepted Islam, soon after his wife Mariah bore him a son and he was named Ibrahim he died after ten months. Thus his children on earth came to be numbered seven in total. His death brought an eclipse of the sun and the prophet symbolized this by saying that the sun and the moon are signs of God. Last Days
The last pilgrimage performed by the prophet was done in 632 CE; it’s during this pilgrimage that, he received his last revelation from angel Jibril. After two months the prophet died on a Monday June the eighth, in the year 632CE, he was buried at the same place where he died, in Medina. (Armstrong 1992). Conclusion Prophet Mohamed lived a simple and fulfilled life, his worldly possession included mats, blankets, jugs and other simple possessions. He spent most of his time praying and in meditation, his family used to fore go meals they relayed on dried bread and dates with water.
He left nothing to be inherited except a white mule, a piece of land and a few ammunitions. His last words were that the communities of prophets are not to be inherited but whatever they live behind should be used for charity. Leadership is all about becoming a servant first Mohammad was a servant to his people he was persecuted and tortured for religion sake. He practiced Patience and seeked no retaliation only waiting on Allah to act; his generosity to the afflicted is beyond reproach this is seen at the way he extends his kindness to widows and orphans.
At the end of his mission as a prophet he was endowed with followers who are all over the world despite the early persecutions he had first as he was ordained. All his persecutors then bowed unto his rule and followed his teachings. All who follow his teachings are called the Muslims and are said to practice Islam they worship at the mosque while they read and practice the Holy Scriptures from the holy book called the Quran. All Muslims try to emulate his teachings his way of life when it comes to honesty and trust worthiness not to mention his kindness.
Up to this date the Muslim fraternity make the honor of going to Mecca at least once in a lifetime they regard it as the holy city were they receive blessings and pardon. Though his life was marred with tribulations he succeeded in doing Gods will, that is giving his people a continuation with their religion that was destroyed by foreigners’ who had idolatrized it. Summary of Prophet Mohammad’s life Prophet Mohammad was an orphan who was raised by his paternal uncle. He grew to become a merchant in the trade caravans in the great Syria, Yemen and Mecca.
He married at the age of twenty five to a rich merchant widow by the name of khadijah. They had two sons who died when still young and four daughters who survived to adult hood. At the age of forty he was visited by angel Jibril, though in doubt he finally accepted the ordination of prophet hood. He faced numerous persecutions as he went through his missions to the extent of sending his followers to Ethiopia. His own family members (his uncle and aunt) disowned him. He wrote the Quran through revelations made to him by angel Jibril. Later on he conquered the Quarish leadership and ruled Mecca.
Before his death he bore another son by the name of Ibrahim though he died after ten months. Prophet Mohamed married three wives, but because of the afflictions that widows went through after wars he extended his kindness and married them. He was a kind man, trustworthy, and simple (humble). References Armstrong K. (1992). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. Harper Collins Publishers Ali M. M. (1997). The Biography: of the Prophet and the Orientalists. King Fahd Complex Brown . D. (2003): A New Introduction to Islam. Blackwell Publishing