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Library System Essay

Library is a place where people focus their attention in reading and making research which can help everyone gains knowledge. It is organized and maintained for the use of public body, institution, corporation, or private individual. The school library provides opportunities for the individuals with the focus on the intellectual content and information literacy to the learner. It contains books and other reference materials made available to the users for reading, studying and getting references.

The books and reference materials are arranged on shelves according to the classification system used for the convenience of the users. Placing similar materials in one location helps the users find multiple items on a given subject more efficiently than those some items scattered within the library. The generation of computer age can be very useful in bridging the demand for library services and ability to provide these services. Deciding the most effective program for establishing an automated circulation system is a task that confronts librarian today.

There are major library problems experienced around the world. Aside from Philippines, India and other countries libraries suffer from lack of proper library facilities and facing the problem of poor services, and most importantly unorganized circulation system and process of retrieving data is not efficient. Local libraries also faced several problems these are lack of financial resources and high cost of computer accessories has reduced the trends in the adoption of automated library system in school libraries while such has limited access to a variety of information on stored data.

The thesis writers observed that the process of inquiring books and retrieving the borrowed and returned book were done manually in Santa Monica Institute. In this, the borrower spent more time in every process of circulating books in Santa Monica Institute. Thus, the thesis writers were interested to design and to develop the Automated Library Circulation System of Santa Monica Institute – Mabini library to improve its operation in order to provide effective services. Literature Background The evolution of technology has undoubtedly increased the variety of resources available in libraries today.

It is especially fueling increased user demands and expectations for information resources and their timely delivery. The impact of the changing technology helps in designing library automation. A. G. Nkhoma-Wamunza stated that “library automation is a process which involves linking computers electronically within and outside the institution, entering library resources in a database to create an Open Access Catalogue, which allows users to access and retrieve information in a timely manner.

” It gained wide acceptance globally due to its many benefits potentials including improved performance efficiency and delivery of quality service in library. Library Circulation is one of those sections of the library that needs automation. It comprises the activities around the lending of library books and other materials to users of a lending library. It provides lending services and facilities for return of loaned items. Renewal of materials and payment of fines are also handled at the circulation desk.

Circulation staff may provide basic search and reference services, though more in-depth questions are usually referred to reference librarians. Librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, and is usually trained in librarianship and experts of finding, organizing and interpreting information needed. They are the guardians of materials inside the library. The reference desk of the library is a public in service counter where professional librarians provide direction to the materials, advice on the

collections and services, and expertise on the multiple kinds of information from multiple sources to the library users. Library user is the borrower of the library materials which can be brought at home / classroom. It can be a student, teacher, patron and even outsider who are greatly benefited on the proposed system. School administration is an important part of our education system. Administrators face a variety of issues on a daily basis. Take a look at strategies and techniques used to combat those issues.

The UP College of Science Library System located at Diliman, Quezon city is one of the existing library system that uses online library system. It has many capabilities it allows to view information about the library and its services. The system also provides information about new titles, library hours and has link that will allow user to contact the library through e-mail. UP College Science is similar to the proposed system because it allows searching of books and other library materials. The library system is implemented to provide user fast and quick access of information.

Automated Library System referred as a cost effective and space saving alternative to common document shelving technologies, addressing the need for space efficiency, secure and automated document and records handling. ALS is a design and software solution focused on the reliability and maintainability. The solution, developed by team of experienced industry professionals is supported by comprehensive services including on-site maintenance, spare parts, modernization, upgrades and expansions. HK has been installing system utilizing this technology for the past forty years.

ALS have been installed at institutions throughout North America. Automated Library System for Navotas City Library (2010). They have two computers in the library without automated library system. The Automated System for Navotas City Library is to facilitate the inventor, lending and returning of books in electronic, systematic and orderly manners. In addition, it aims to cope with the trends of technology today for the library and to the library and to have a system that will attract more users.

to the library, therefore, appreciation on the library can contribute it to the information needed by the students, workers, and researchers especially to the people of Navotas City. Bodiongan (2000). The researcher found that the process of retrieving data and information are not efficient. So the borrower takes time in finding information because the materials are not properly returned to the right arrangement. The process of retrieving and keeping records of the borrowers is time consuming due to low quality of the borrower’s card.

The library has a huge collection of books so the borrower takes time in sorting information from the card catalogue. The library assistant takes time in searching the borrower’s records because there are some instances that some of the borrower’s card are not properly returned. Curan (2011). In her study, the researcher observed that the process of inquiring books and retrieving the borrowed and returned book were done manually. In this, the borrower spent more time in every process of circulating books. The researcher conclude that the system has great help in minimizing the time consume in borrowing and retrieving data.

The system provides accurate and secure keeping of data, and can generate report immediately. Code of ethics of Library Association adopted at the 1939 Midwinter Meeting by the ALA Council; amended June 30, 1981; June 28, 1995; and January 22, 2008 states that “we protect each library user’s right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted. ” Privacy is essential to the exercise of free speech, free thought, and free association.

Identifiable information about users is confidential and the library keeps that information private and confidential on their behalf. This policy is intended to prevent the unauthorized use of our patrons’ personal information, and to protect the privacy of this information. Librarians are responsible for keeping the information’s security needed for the reference of the user and provide better service to the borrowers. Section 10 Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution mandates that: Science and technology are essential for national development and progress.

The state shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate and self- reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive system and national life. Technology plays great role for the improvement of an institution. The continuous growth of technology leads to many inventions for the improvement of the institution one of this is the Santa Monica Institute. Technology help provide system that would provide user better service in this institutions.

Section 12, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution mandates stated: The state shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. Through the use of technology, it can help the institution to improve process with the use of the proposed system that involves private groups to indentify the features that needs improvement to provide better service.

Section 13, Republic Act 8293 mandates stated: The state shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such period as may be provided by law. This states that the researchers should protect the right to defend the study and portability of data. In this study, the researchers should protect and secure the proposed system with the use of password to avoid the alteration of information. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem.

The main purpose of the study is to design and developed Santa Monica Institute Library Circulation System that would serve as a proposal to minimize time in searching books and generate reliable and accurate reports. Specifically, the study answers the following questions: 1. What are the features of the system that needs improvement? 2. To what extent of the performance of the proposed system in terms of 3. 1 Security; 3. 2 Human Interface; 3. 3 Requirements; and 3. 4 Performance/ Reliability. Significance of the study The study would be beneficial to the following: School Administration.

This study could be used as basis in implementing library improvement and development. Librarian. It enables her to respond to the borrower’s request immediately. Borrowers. They are greatly benefitted because they can get immediate response on their requests. Future Researchers. This study enhances the capability in making the system. It gives essence on how computerization really helps on developing one’s institution and on how library system operates. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Design The researcher used the Descriptive Survey and Experimental method with the use of a self-made questionnaire and software evaluation tool.

The descriptive survey or questionnaire was used to determine the problems encountered by the librarian and library users, and the features of the existing system that needs improvement. The experimental method or the evaluation tool was used to ascertain the acceptability level of automated system. Environment and Participants The study was conducted in Santa Monica Institute, Poblacion 1, Mabini, Bohol. The school administration, librarian, borrowers were the respondents. The librarian will be the user of the proposed system. Data Gathering Instruments.

The researcher used two instruments, the self-made questionnaire and the evaluation tool. Self-made questionnaire is a guide used to interview the respondents to get information about the Library Circulation System. This was constructed based on the present transactions at Santa Monica Institute. The evaluation tool was employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. This tool was secured from the internet and related books. The tool was modified and respond to the needs of user and tasked to rate the items using a five-point Likert scale.

The questionnaire and evaluation tool are attached in appendix B and C. The researcher also used the context diagram, system flowchart, IPO (Input Process Output) and HIPO (Hierarchical Input – Process – Output) in designing the proposed software. These tools are necessary for the development of the system. Procedure The thesis writers interviewed the librarian to have an idea, information and other important details about the flow of operation in the library. Statistical Treatment To ascertain the level of acceptability of the system in library cataloging this formula was used:

?fx N ?fx N Weighted mean, X = where: f = frequency x = weight N = number of responses The Likert-type scale was used for scaling the acceptability level of the system software. Scale| Range| Categorical Response| Description| 5| 4. 20-5. 00| Strongly Acceptable| The system exceeds expectations and outstandingly performs the job requirements or 100% acceptable. | 4| 3. 40-4. 19| Moderately Acceptable| The system highly fulfills the job requirements or 80% acceptable. | 3| 2. 60-3. 39| Acceptable | The system meets the job requirements or 60% acceptable. | 2| 1. 80-2.

59| Slightly Acceptable| The system slightly meets the job requirements or 40% acceptable. | 1| 1. 00-1. 79| Not Acceptable| The system fails to meet the job requirements or 20% acceptable. | DEFINITION OF TERMS Automated library circulation system. It is a system that involves systematic storing of information which includes the book, borrowers and generating reports. Borrowers. Library users can be student or a teacher who can lend books which is brought at home/ classroom. Circulation system. It is the process of circulating of library materials which includes borrowing and returning of library materials.

Context diagram. It is used by the thesis writers to scope the project as it provides a visual model of the interactions between the system and the outside entities that interface with the solutions . Data flow diagram. It shows the part of the system which includes the same process but being automated. It is involved in converting data to generate reports. HIPO. Hierarchical Input-Process-Output a high-level view of the functions performed by a system as its functions and software implementation. IPO. Input Process Output these are the components or elements that make-up the system.

It is also described as tools on the design of the entire software. Library. A room or building where a collection of books, periodicals, etc. , are kept for reading or reference, or public or private institution in-charge of the care and circulation of such collection. Library materials. Use in this study in order to include books of various kinds, periodicals, newspapers, magazines, vertical files consisting of clippings, pamphlets and the audio-visual materials which include maps, globes, charts and pictures. Library system. It is a systematic way of placing books, journals, magazines and others that would provide the need of the users.

System Flowchart. It is formalized graphic representation of a program logic sequence, work or manufacturing processes, organizing chart or similar formalized structsure. Chapter 2 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA A. Present System System Narrative Students/teachers inquired the librarian on borrowing and returning of books. If the students wanted to borrow, they were required to have their library card and place in the folder. For the teachers they were only required to give their ID card and pass it to the librarian.

After receiving, the librarian gave the book card to the students / teachers and filled-up the information needed in borrowing the book and gave it back to the librarian before the book was given to the borrower. Borrowed book was returned before the due date. Upon returning it, the librarian gave the identification card of the borrower. If the book returned late, penalty was imposed. If cases of lost book, the borrower was required to pay the exact amount of the book or replaced the book either. Generating report was done after the inventory. It is done twice a year, before the school year starts and school year ends.

* Borrowed Book * Library Card * Borrower’s Information Librarian Folder Borrower * Reports Administration * Borrowed Book * Library Card * Borrower’s Information Librarian Folder Borrower * Reports Administration Figure 1. 0 Conceptual Diagram Event Specifications 1. Student/ Teacher make inquiry. Student/Teacher 1. 0 Handle Inquiry Book Information * Response * Inquiry Student/Teacher 1. 0 Handle Inquiry Book Information * Response * Inquiry Borrower Borrower 2. Student/ Teacher borrows book. 2. 0 Handle Borrowing Borrowers Student / Teacher Student Record Book Information * Release Book.

* Library Card * Book Card * Book Title * Borrower’s ID 2. 0 Handle Borrowing Borrowers Student / Teacher Student Record Book Information * Release Book * Library Card * Book Card * Book Title * Borrower’s ID 3. Borrower returns book. Borrowers Book Information * Borrowed Book * Borrower’s ID * Penalty Details Borrower 3. 0 Handle Returning Student Record Borrowers Book Information * Borrowed Book * Borrower’s ID * Penalty Details Borrower 3. 0 Handle Returning Student Record 4. Librarian generates reports. Borrowers Student Record Administration 6. 0 Handle Report Book Information.

* Reports Borrowers Student Record Administration 6. 0 Handle Report Book Information * Reports Findings / Constraints The librarian took time in giving response to the inquiry of the student/teacher because records were not organized. To provide immediate response to the inquiry, data must be systematized. The student/teacher spent time in borrowing because the librarian got the problem in retrieving the records of available books, because some books were lost and not properly returned. To minimize the time consume in borrowing, all records must be automated for quick access.

They had the same problem encountered in returning the books because the librarian found it hard in retrieving the students’ records. To provide fast process in returning, the records of the borrower must be computerized for quick access. The librarian has delayed in submitting reports. To generate early reports, the data must be systematized. Flowchart F T Main Menu Input User’s Name Input Password If Valid X F T Main Menu Input User’s Name Input Password If Valid X Begin Begin Log-in Log-in X X Display Message Display Message Main Menu Main Menu Display Main Screen Display Main Screen A A User Select Button.

User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button T T Transaction Transaction If Transactions If Transactions F F T T If Records If Records Records Records F F T T If Reports If Reports Reports Reports F F T T If Utility If Utility Utility Utility F F T T If System User If System User System User System User F F T T If About If About About About F F A A Transactions Transactions Display Transaction Screen Display Transaction Screen Display Transaction Screen Display Transaction Screen B B User Select Button User Select Button If Borrow If Borrow T T Borrow Borrow F F T T Return Return If Return If Return F F.

B B Records Records Display Records Screen Display Records Screen Display Records Screen Display Records Screen C C User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button T T If Books If Books Books Books Books Books If Books If Books F F O O O O If Accession If Accession Accession Accession If Accession If Accession T T F F If Borrowers If Borrowers T T Borrowers Borrowers If Borrowers If Borrowers F F T T If Book Penalty If Book Penalty Book Penalty Book Penalty If Book Penalty If Book Penalty F F T T If Placement And Classification If Placement And Classification Placement and Classification.

Placement and Classification If Placement and Classification If Placement and Classification F F If Borrowers Penalty If Borrowers Penalty T T Borrower penalty Borrower penalty If Borrower penalty If Borrower penalty F F T T If Master List If Master List Master List Master List Master List Master List F F C C Reports Reports Display Reports Screen Display Reports Screen Display Reports Screen Display Reports Screen D D User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button T T If Book Information If Book Information Book Information Book Information F F If Borrowers Information

If Borrowers Information T T Borrowers Information Borrowers Information F F If Top Borrowers If Top Borrowers Top Borrowers Top Borrowers T T F F T T If Due Books If Due Books Due Books Due Books F F If Lost Books If Lost Books T T Lost Books Lost Books F F D D Utility Utility Display Utility Screen Display Utility Screen E E User Select Button User Select Button If Backup and Restore Database If Backup and Restore Database T T Backup and Restore Database Backup and Restore Database F F T T If Clean Database If Clean Database Clean Database Clean Database F F E E System User System User Display System Screen.

Display System Screen F F User Select Button User Select Button T T If User Account If User Account User Account User Account F F L L L L F F T T If Switch User If Switch User Switch User Switch User F F T T If Log Off If Log Off Log off Log off If Lock If Lock F F If Exit If Exit T T Exit Exit If Exit If Exit F F F F About About Display System Screen Display System Screen H H Display System Screen Display System Screen User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button User Select Button If Thesis Writers If Thesis Writers T T Thesis Writers Thesis Writers If Researcher If Researcher F F H H B. Proposed System.

System Rules Library Circulation policy is to organize both book records and borrower‘s information and keep track for easy and quick access. This is encrypted with password and only the authorized person is allowed to access for the safety of the information. Some library materials such as pamphlets, magazine and CD’s are also included in the process. These materials are input in the system with the title and corresponding accession numbers, and it is sorted whenever it is needed. Borrowers are only allowed to borrow three (3) books per day for overnight and over week end and have duration of three (3) days.

Overnight books are to be taken from 4:30 to 5:00 pm. and to be returned at 7:15-7:30 on the following day. The over weekend books are to be taken from the library on the Friday afternoon from 4:30-5:00 pm. , and to be returned at 7:15-7:30 on Monday morning. If the student exceed the given due date, penalty will be imposed. It will be calculated and will be paid. The payment of the penalty is done at the cashier and only official receipt is needed that is being input on the system. Context Diagram 0 Santa Monica Institute Library Circulation System Borrower Administration * Reports * Response.

* Released Book * Penalty * Receipt * Inquiry * Library Card * Book Title * Book Card * Borrowed Book * Identification Card 0 Santa Monica Institute Library Circulation System Borrower Administration * Reports * Response * Released Book * Penalty * Receipt * Inquiry * Library Card * Book Title * Book Card * Borrowed Book * Identification Card Event List: 1. Borrower makes inquiry. 2. Borrower borrows book. 3. Borrower returns book. 4. Librarian generates report. Event Specifications 1. Student/ Teacher make inquiry. 1. 0 Handle Inquiry Student/Teacher Book Information * Response * Inquiry 1. 0

Handle Inquiry Student/Teacher Book Information * Response * Inquiry Borrower Borrower 2. Student / Teacher borrows book. 2. 0 Handle Borrowing Borrowers Student / Teacher Student Record Book Information * Release Book * Library Card * Book Card * Book Title * Borrower’s ID 2. 0 Handle Borrowing Borrowers Student / Teacher Student Record Book Information * Release Book * Library Card * Book Card * Book Title * Borrower’s ID 3. Borrower returns book. Borrowers Book Information * Borrowed Book * Borrower’s ID * Penalty Details Borrower 3. 0 Handle Returning Student Record Borrowers Book Information.

* Borrowed Book * Borrower’s ID * Penalty Details Borrower 3. 0 Handle Returning Student Record 4. Librarian generates reports. Borrowers Student Record Administration 6. 0 Handle Report Book Information * Reports Borrowers Student Record Administration 6. 0 Handle Report Book Information * Reports Process Specification Process 1. 0 Student/ Teacher makes Inquiry Begin If student / teacher make inquiry Accept inquiry If inquiry about available book Open available book Retrieve list of available book Close available book Else if inquiry about registration Open book configuration form.

Input borrower’s ID, borrower’s Full name, Address, cell number, age, gender, borrower’s type, year level and section. Register borrower End if End Process 2. 0 Student/ Teacher borrow book. Begin If borrower borrow book Accept borrowing If borrower is new Register borrower Open borrower’s configuration form Input borrower’s ID, borrowers name, address, cell number, age, gender, borrower’s type year level and section Close borrower’s configuration form Else if borrower is old Open book issue form Retrieve borrower’s ID, borrower’s name, book info, accession no, ISBN, book title, date issued, due date and purpose.

Close book issue form End if End Process 3. 0 Borrower returns book. Begin Do while borrower’s return book Open return form Input borrower’s ID Retrieve borrower’s ID, borrowers name, accession no, ISBN, book title, date issued, due date, date returned and penalty Close return form End Process 4. 0 Librarian generates report. Begin Do while librarian receive memorandum Accept memorandum Retrieve list of books Generate repots of list of book If reports report about books Open inventory report Retrieve total number of books, damage. Lost Print report Close book report Else if reports about other library materials.

Open other library materials Retrieved number of copies lost and damage Close library materials End if End Database Design It is a preliminary plan of software, where the collection of related data is organized for convenient access with the use of computer. Accession – contains the number of copies of the certain book. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| ID number of the user| Acession_no| Text| 30| Number of the copy of the book| Copies| Text| 80| Number of copies| ISBN| Text| 30| International Standard book number| Date_received| Text| 50| Date received|.

Borrowers_fulln-ame| Text| 50| Borrower’s full name| Status| Text| 10| Lost / Returned| Account – contains the username and password of the user. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | User_ID| Number| Long integer| ID number of the user| User_Name| Text| 20| Name of the user| Complete_Name| Text| 30| Complete name of the user| Password| Text| 10| Password of the user| Account_Type| Text| 20| Limited/ administrator| User_Account| Yes/No| 20| Limited/ administrator| Log| Yes/No| 20| Log| Borrow| Yes/No| 20| Borrow| Return| Yes/No| 20| Return| Book| Yes/No| 20| Book|.

Stat| Yes/No| 20| Status| Placement| Yes/No| 20| Features| Format| Yes/No| 20| Features| Borrowers| Yes/No| 20| Features of borrower| Up_penalty| Yes/No| 20| Penalty | Book_r| Yes/No| 20| Book| Return_r| Yes/No| 20| Date returned| Date_due| Yes/No| 20| Due date| Inventory_r| Yes/No| 20| Inventory reports| Catalog_r| Yes/No| 20| Catalog | Backup| Yes/No| 20| Back up files| Account_log – contains the time in and out of the user. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | Log_ID| Number| Long integer| ID number of the user| User_ID| Text| 10| ID number of the user|.

Timer_login| Text| 20| Time log in | Timer_logout| Text| 20| Time log out| Dte| Text| 30| Date| Remarks| Text| 10| Remarks| Book – contains the information of the book. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Number| Long integer| ID number of the user| ISBN| Text| 30| Unique no of the book| Book_Title| Text| 200| Title of book| Other_title| Text| 200| Sub title of the book| Other_physical| Text| 200| Other Physical details| Author1| Text| 50| Name of the 1st author| Author2| Text| 50| Name of the 2nd author| Author3| Text| 50| Name of the 3rd author|.

Notes| Text| 100| Notes| Publisher| Text| 255| Name of the publisher| Place_publication| Text| 200| Place of publication| Placement_code| Text| 20| Placement code| Book_no| Text| 10| Number of the book| Author_no| Text| 200| Author number| Subject1| Text| 255| Subject| Subject2| Text| 255| Subject| Subject3| Text| 255| Subject| Format| Text| 20| Book classification| Edition| Text| 200| Number of edition| Copyright_year| Text| 10| Copyright year| Date_received| Date/ Time| General date| Date received| Source| Text| 15| Donated/ purchased| Pages| Text| 5| Number of pages| Amount| Number| Long integer| Amount of the book|

Total_copies| Number| Long integer| Total number of copies| Book_borrowed – contains the book borrowed by the borrower. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| User Id| Borrowers_Id| Text| 10| Borrower’s ID| Borrowers_Name| Text| 30| Borrower’s name| Accession_no| Text| 10| Number of copies of the book| Copies| Text| 10| Number of copies| ISBN| Text| 20| International standard book number| Book_Title| Text| 200| Title of the book| Date_Issued| Date/ time| General date| Date issued| Date_Due| Date/ time| General date| Due date|.

Date_Returned| Date/ time| General date| Date returned| Time_Due| Date/ time| General date|Due time| Purpose| Text| 15| Overnight/ over weekend| Penalty| Text| 15| Paid/ unpaid| Status| Text| 15| In/ out| Remarks| Text| 10| Returned/ unreturned| Borrowers_info – contains borrower’s personal information. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| User ID| Borrowers_ID| Text| 30| Borrower’s ID| Complete_Name| Text| 100| Borrower’s Full Name| Gender| Text| 20| Gender| Age| Text| 10| Age of the borrower| Address| Text| 80| Address of the borrower|.

Cell_Number| Text| 20| Cell number | Type| Text| 20| Student/ teacher| Year_level| Text| 50| Year level| Section| Text| 30| Section| No_borrowed| Number| Long integer| No of book borrowed| Total_borrowed| Number| Long integer| Total no of book borrowed| Event_list – contains of all the event done by the librarian on the system. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| Number of data| User_ID| Number| Long integer| User ID| Event| Text| 40| Event| Event_date| Date/ time| General date| Event time | Event_time| Date/ time| General date| Event date|.

Format – classification of the book. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| Number of data| Format| Text| 200| Classification of book| Inventory – actual counting of all library materials. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| User ID| ISBN| Text| 50| International standard book number| Total_copies| Text| 10| Total copies| Copies_on_hand| Text| 10| Copies on hand| Copies_borrowed| Text| 10| Copies borrowed| Copies_lost| Text| 10| Copies lost|.

Penalty – contains to the amount to be paid by the user. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID| Autonumber| Long integer| User ID| Format| Text| 200| Overnight/ over weekend| First_hour| Text| 10| Penalty for first hour | Next_hour| Text| 10| Penalty for the next hour| First_day| Text| 10| Penalty for the first day| Next_day| Text| 10| Penalty for the next day| Days_limit_for_borrow| Text| 10| Days limit| Placement – contains the code that is being replace. Fieldname Data Type Width Description Fieldname Data Type Width Description | | | | ID|.


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