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Liberalism Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Liberal Government 1905-1914

The Liberal welfare reforms of 1906-1914 saw a remarkable change in government policy from a largely laissez-faire (a policy of non-intervention) approach to a more interventionist approach. The Liberal government, led by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman would do more in the way of social reform than any government before it, establishing an obligation to help the more vulnerable members of society who were not in a position to help themselves. Two social surveys were published at the beginning of the twentieth century which shook the people of Britain. They undoubtedly paved the way for a whole range of government led reforms. Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree, two very wealthy businessmen helped sponsor investigations in to the causes of poverty in Britain….

The Scientific Revolution on the Enlightenment Era

The scientific revolution started in the late in the late 1600’s and was followed by the enlightenment era. The scientific revolution scientists challenged the church’s teachings and proved them wrong in many ways. That made people open their eyes and start to question all of their leaders including those who believed in divine right. With that said, the enlightenment eera couldn’t have happened without the scientific revolution happening before because the scientists of the scientific revolution inspired the enlightenment philosophers, the scientists of the scientific revolution also made the philosophers of the enlightenment think differently and question their rulers, and lastly, new inventions created during the scientific revolution helped spread the ideas of the enlightenment philosophers. The scientific revolution scientists…

Intellectual Diversity

Have you ever really stopped to think about diversity? The typical individual usually thinks of different skin colors or the different backgrounds everyone has. By definition diversity is the condition of being different. The term ‘diversity’ encompasses a broad scope. There are many realms to diversity such as economic, cultural, and gender. However a type of diversity that has been growing in buzzword in recent years, especially among the conservative communities of college campuses, is intellectual diversity. Intellectual diversity, along with ‘academic freedom’ is what activists like David Horowitz characterize as being the equal treatment of an individual, regardless of political affiliations or religious beliefs. The leftist tendencies inherent in academia are of course not a new development, though they…

John Lock

An English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence. Locke’s theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau and Kant. Locke was the…

Aristotle: the Hellenic and Universal Elements in Political Thought

Aristotle was not only a political thinker but also a political scientist. If Plato is considered the first political philosopher Aristotle is rightly called the first political scientist. He studies politics from an empirical and scientific perspective. The method he used in the study of politics was inductive and analytical. He reached the conclusions after collection and analysis of data. He studied the constitution of a number of then existing Greek city-states and thereby laid the foundation of a new subject called the Comparative Politics. His method was therefore, not only inductive and analytical but also empirical and comparative. Aristotle advocates the doctrine of natural origin of state. The state has come into being following a long process of evolution,…

The revolution in France

The revolution in France during the year 1789 had numerous long term causes. The causes consisted of Weak Leadership in the monarchy, the poor economical status of the country, and the spreading of the ideas brought forth during the Enlightenment Era. These problems and many others contributed to the beginning of the French Revolution due to the heavy burden placed on the third estate by the first and second estates as well as by the monarchy. In 1789, the Bourgeoisie led the third estate into the official beginning of the French Revolution. One of the main causes to the French Revolution was weak leadership. “King Lois XVI was absolute. He ruled by divine right.” (Document 1) King Lois XVI didn’t…

Liberal Reforms

By the early twentieth century the Liberal Government was worried that Britain’s military capability and general military power was not as strong and it once was. Therefore, the Government’s concern over national security definitely influenced the decision for the reforms. However, there are three main factors that also need to be taken into account when deciding if concern over national security was the real reason for the reforms: the Social reasons, concerns for Britain’s Empire and the Political motive. The Social reasons played a large part in persuading the Liberals to reform. The detailed reports of Booth and Rowntree, and the evidence which was brought to light, highlighted that nearly a 1/3 of Britain’s population lived in poverty. This needed…

Classical Liberalism

Classical Liberalism is against government interventionism in all realms of life. They believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of income. This differs from reform liberalism, as they want government intervention to guarantee equality of opportunity. This is made possible by progressive income tax, government regulation on big business, and social welfare. In My opinion Classical Liberalism is superior as its fair and easier to implement than reform Liberalism. Classical Liberalists think that every man or women is responsible for their own destiny, and that the government should not hinder the individuals, or businesses pursuit of it. They also have no mandate to correct the results of this, regardless of how positive, or negative. They think that people should…

We’Re All Liberals Now

The major political parties in the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, have become considerably more central than they were originally. Labour was originally a strongly socialist party, but it gradually centralised and has accepted some ideas of the centre-right under New Labour. The Conservative Party originated as a royalist party, but it has adopted a number of left-wing or liberal ideas in recent times, such as free-market economics and equality of opportunity. In the 1980s there was a revival of classical liberal economics under Margaret Thatcher. Although Mrs. Thatcher was socially very conservative, she advocated economic growth through private enterprise and minimal state intervention in the economy. These doctrines were put into practice and have remained…

Enlightenment

Immanuel Kant In December 1783 Johann Friedrich Zöllner published an article in Berlinische Monatsschrift that stated his opposition to civil marriage, an idea proposed in a previous issue of the journal. Zöllner wrote that the foundations of morality had been shaken in the name of enlightenment and concluded his piece with the question “what is enlightenment?” Zöllner asserted that this question must first be answered before “one begins to enlighten”[1]. Immanuel Kant’s reply to Zöllner’s question is often considered the most famous and most important. In his essay, Kant succinctly outlined his opinion on what enlightenment is, the obstacles to enlightenment and how individuals achieve enlightenment. Kant defined enlightenment as “ man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage” and the “courage…

How Successful Was the Quiet Revolution

Freedom of speech and press, equality before the law, right to property and security, and the separation of Church and State. All of these things we take for granted as our fundamental rights but until the Quiet Revolution, these concepts were rare in most nations. The English-French relations have not always been easy. Each is always arguing and accusing the other of wrong doings. All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960. This was the beginning of the Quiet Revolution. Lesage had an excellent team of cabinet ministers which included Rene Levesque. The Liberals promised to do two things during the Quiet…

Im a Liberal

Imagine you live in Europe in 1848. Write a letter to a friend, stating your political position —– conservative, liberal, or radical. Express your feelings about the uprisings and the future of Europe. Dear Bob, I’m writing you today to tell you about my political position. I’m a liberal. I know you want to know why I chose to be a liberal, so here it is. The definition of liberalism is the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. So I was thinking of things that fall under those guidelines and I came up with this as my explanation. I’m a liberal because I believe health care is a basic human right. I’m liberal because education and a…

Political Ideology

Upon entering my first semester at Southern Nazarene University I could not have told you my political ideology. I knew what my opinions, observations, expectations, and ideals were, but did not know the proper ideology that would define them. Through several courses that I have taken, I have become more informed as to the role that I would like to see the government take throughout society as a whole and in the economy. Upon reading the section of ideology in American Government and Politics Today: the Essentials I learned that the correct term for my ideology is right-wing Conservatism. I would like to see the government take action if necessary in the economy, yet let capitalism and the economy regulate…

Freedom: John Stuart Mill

1. John Stuart Mill: Freedom Freedom is generally defined, by a dictionary, as the condition or right of being able or allowed to do, say, think, etc. whatever you want to, without being controlled or limited (Cambridge). This means there is no interference or influence in ones’ actions or opinions by anyone else. There is no domination or dictatorial government who affects these actions or opinions. John Stuart Mill, an English philosopher and economist, gives a similar view on freedom as the Cambridge dictionary, and looks at the ‘nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual’ (Mill, 6). Mill’s view of freedom, as he writes in his book On Liberty, is that…

Hobbes vs Locke

Locke Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were known as Social Contract Theorists, and Natural Law Theorists. The two men both had very strong views on freedom and how a country should be governed. Thomas Hobbes had more of a Pessimistic view while John locke had more of an Optimistic view. Hobbes and Locke believed in a type of Social Contract between the Government and being governed. Hobbes believed in Absolute Monarchs and Locke believed in the will of people being governed. Hobbes opposed constitutionalism because of his pessimistic appraisal of human nature. They both had extremely different views on government, but the bases of their arguments were similar. They both used reason to justify their ideas, rather than divine right….

John Locke Wanted Everyone To Have The

John Locke wanted everyone to have the “right to life, liberty, and property” which is used in the Declaration of Independence as the “right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. ” His ideas of the social contract, in which everyone in a society is accountable to one another, and the idea of governments deriving their power from the consent of the governed were both revolutionary concepts in 1776 that made their way into the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The An? -Federalists in? uenced the conven? on during the ra?? ca? on process. The proponents of the Cons? tu? on took the name “Federalists. “Though those who opposed the Cons? tu? on actually wanted a more purely…

John Locke Biography

John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, Somerset, England. He went to the University of Oxford, where he studied medicine. After college he became a philosopher; writing and speaking on topics, such as political philosophy. His father was a country lawyer and was in the military, he served as a captain during the English civil war. John Locke was one of the Whig party founders, this party pushed for constitutional monarchism. He also wrote two books that were published in England; Two Treaties of Government and his Letter Concerning. Toleration while he was in exile in Holland, due to a failed assassination attempt on King Charles II and his brother. Two Treatises of Government showed his revolutionary…

John Locke Essay

John Locke, a philosopher of the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment, greatly influenced the American revolution and the French revolution. His beliefs were the social contract, natural rights, and the right of revolution. One of John Locke’s beliefs was the social contract. A social contract can be either a written or unwritten agreement between a government and its people. Social contracts usually contain a basic set of laws and agreements explaining how the country should be run. Examples of a Social contract are the US constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. John Locke was a huge influence for both of these documents. Locke also believed that every person has natural rights. A natural right is a…

John Locke Research Paper

Throughout history there have been many philosophers that impacted the world. Philosophers such as John Locke have shaped today’s society in a number of ways. John Locke was extremely influential and has had some of the most lasting impacts on the ideas still to this day. John Locke has inspired a many of people throughout his lifetime and shaped the way for philosophers and great minds of the generations to come. John Locke was an English philosopher, born on August 29 1632, in Somerset, England. He was born into a Protestant family (Faiella 24). Locke’s mother died when he was an infant and he was raised by his father John, who is said to have had an influence on Locke’s…

Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu

John Locke- 1. John Locke was one of the greatest philosophers in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century. Locke grew up and lived through one of the most extraordinary centuries of English political and intellectual history. The collapse of the Protectorate after the death of Cromwell was followed by the Restoration of Charles II — the return of the monarchy, the House of Lords and the Anglican Church. 2. Born 1632, died 1704. Locke’s chief work while living at Lord Ashley’s residence, Exeter House, in 1668 was his work as secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas. 3. John Locke is known for the “Two Treatises of Government….

Liberal Theory

This memo outlines the liberal approach to theorizing international relations. Like realism, institutionalism, or non-rational approaches, it is a name given to a family of related theories of international relations. Here it will not be used, as many use it in international relations, to designate theories that stress the importance of international institutions. Nor to designate theories that stress the importance of universal, altruistic or utopian values of a liberal sort, such as human rights or democracy. Nor to designate theories favored by left-wing (“liberal”) political parties or policies in the US. Instead, it is a theory that stresses the role of the varied social interests and values of states, and their relevance for world politics. Liberals argue that the…

The Modern Rizal is in Your Heart

“There can be no tyrants where there are no slaves.” a quotation of Dr.Jose Rizal and also known as Pepe, a genius, well-traveled intellectual, the noble doctor, the artist, the sophisticate, a writer and resistance leader in the Philippines during Spanish colonization. He said it to break the consciousness of abuses that Filipino suffered in Spaniards and fellow Filipino. If Rizal is alive today, would he inspire us again in his literary works as a youth? What would he say to our country? In what character would he live? Is it in government official or a simple Filipino that follows the law? Would he fight for the rights of his fellow Filipino? Would he continue to write about the Filipino…

Why Is the Concept of Freedom so Contested in Political Theory

Freedom is an important concept in Western politics, strongly entwined as it is with ideas of liberalism. Yet, as suggested by the question, the concept is one which is hotly debated. Indeed, political agents attempt to control the political agenda through promotion of their particular definition. This essay will look at the ways freedom has been defined by different theorists over the years. It will also look at how freedom is linked with and explained through different theories and ideologies. It will then go on to look at how these different theories and ideologies may shape the conceptions of freedom we find in our daily lives. Different political theorists, writing in different times, often of political turmoil, have considered freedom…

1906 British General Election

The Liberals lapped on the conservatives weaknesses, and used that to their strengths. The leadership of Campbell-Bannerman proved as a success by throwing out accusations towards the Tories, like their methods of barbarism and ‘Chinese slavery.’ They also had young, dynamic MP’s and the gaining of Winston Churchill. The liberals opposed the tariff reform and supported free trade like many working class voters. The Tories had won 334 seats in the 1900 election but that went down to 157 seats in the 1906 election, which is a loss of 177 seats. But on the other hand in the 1900 election the Liberals had 187 seats but by 1906 election they had gone up to 401 seats, which is a gain…

Factors of Independence in Spanish America

Outline and discuss the main factors contributing to the movements of independence in Spanish America. The main factors contributing to the movements of independence in Spanish America can be seen to be influenced by international and domestic events, together with economic and socio-political conditions. These themes will be examined in considerable detail in this essay, together with the historical background which provides the foundation stone on which all movements of independence find their roots and ensures the uniqueness of each movement. The movements for independence were unique but equally many of the factors contributing to the movement are mirrored to a greater or lesser extent. The Enlightenment, which can be noted as a main factor which contributed to the movements…

Political Ideologies

Ideology is a highly contested phenomenon used in politics, social science and philosophical discourse. Heywood (2003, p12) defines ideology as ‘a more or less coherent set of ideas that provides the basis for organised political action whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power.’ According to Freeden (2003) we are all ideologists in the sense that we prescribe to certain political views in our environment. He goes on to say that ideologies are competing interpretations of making sense of the worlds we live in. Ideologies look at what society should be like and why the society is the way it is. Leach (2002) states that the term ideology is quite problematic. He also defines…

Liberalism and Colonialism

Liberalism is both egalitarian and inegalitarian, it stresses both the unity of mankind and the hierarchy of cultures, it is both tolerant and intolerant, peaceful and violent, pragmatic and dogmatic, skeptical and self-righteous. Bhikhu Parekh examines the writing of John Locke and John Stuart Mill, two of greatest liberal philosophers. Locke state that the Indians had cultivated and lived on their land for centuries and it was their ‘rightful inheritance’. He asked the English settlers for information about the Indian way of life, and built up an impressive collection of books dealing with the European exploration of the Americas. The Indian way of life offered a realistic contrast to, and provided most valuable insights into, the nature and structure of…

How has life changed since 1800?

Life as we know it today in the modern world, is significantly different to the lives that our predecessors lived during the period 1500-1800. The changes across the centuries are the result of a process of advancements over time. This essay will examine life in the period 1500-1800 as highlighted in the work of George Blainey (2000) and will compare key differences of life in this early period, against life in the modern world today. Throughout this essay, the main focus will be based on three areas which have seen significant change over this period of time: the production of food, work practices and the standard of living. The advancements in these three areas, has led to societies living very…

Liberalism and Conservatism in America

In the political arena today, there are two crucial concepts governing the political philosophy, policy framework and legislations. Politics is categorized into conservative and liberal perspectives with liberalism supporting more government involvement in the development of policy framework that encourages affirmative actions which aims at uplifting the disadvantaged and the minority groups in the society. Liberals also call for an increased spending on the part of the government coupled by enhanced regulation and policies that redistributes wealth via taxation. Conservatives on the other hand calls for a greater dependence on the freedom of the market where the minority groups and the disadvantaged are able to support themselves. They advocate for lower taxation and less government regulations. Both liberalism and Conservatism…

Causes Of The French Revolution

On July 14, 1789 a large mob stormed the Bastille, and killed the commander and some other soldiers. The fall of the Bastille marked the beginning of the French Revolution, and was a symbol to the people of France representing years of abuse by the monarchy. Also, this event served as a wake-up call to King Louis XVI. Unlike any other short protest or riot, this event actually challenge to the regime. As the French Revolution progressed, French society underwent a transformation as feudal, religious, and aristocratic privileges disappeared and the ancien régime were abruptly overthrown under the fundamental principle of “Liberté, égalité, fraternité”. Although there are many causes to the French Revolution, the three main ones are: the mismanagement…