The Judiciary body in India functions independently from the Executive and Legislative bodies in the country. The Judiciary plays a major role in the maintenance of law and order in India. There are various levels of Judiciary bodies that play a key role in ensuring smooth functioning of the judicial system in India.
Levels of Judiciary
As per decreasing order of importance, the different levels of Judiciary bodies that operate in India have been listed below.
* The Supreme Court of India
* The High Courts
* The District Courts
* Lok Adalats
The Judiciary system followed in India is a replica of the British Legal System. Over the years, very few modifications have been made to the Indian judicial system.
The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court, the highest judicial system in India, came into existence on 28th January, 1950. The Chief Justice of India heads the Supreme Court. The maximum number of judges that the Supreme Court can have, apart from the Chief Justice, is 25. Some of the important roles and responsibilities of the Supreme Court of India include:
* Protector of the Indian Constitution
* Highest Court of Appeal
The High Courts
The High Courts exist in almost all the Indian states and Union Territories. Out of the 19 High Courts that function in India, the oldest one is the Calcutta High Court. The High Court judges are elected by the President of India. The High Courts are authorised to handle all kinds of civil and criminal cases. The Supreme Court controls the activities of the High Courts in India.
The District Courts
District level, judicial matters are referred to the District Courts in India. Administrative and judicial affairs of the District Courts are taken care of by the state High Court.
Tribunals in India also have a critical judiciary role to play in India. Some of the important tribunals that operate in the country have been listed below.
* Income Tax Appellate Tribunal
* Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal, Chennai
* Appellate Tribunal for Electricity
* Debts Recovery Tribunal II, Chennai
* Debt Recovery Tribunal, Coimbatore
* Central Administrative Tribunal
* Railways Claims Tribunal
* Debts Recovery Tribunal I, Chennai
* Central Excise Service Tax Appellate Tribunal