This chapter is divided into five parts: (1) Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis, (3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and (5) Delimitation of the Study.
Part One, Background of the Study and Theoretical Framework of the Study, presents the rationale for choosing the problem and the Theoretical Framework upon which study was anchored. Part Two, Statement of the Problem and the Hypotheses, states the main and the specific problems of the research including the hypotheses. Part Three, Significance of the Study, cites the benefits that may be derived from the findings of the investigation.
Part Four, Definition of Terms, gives the conceptual and operational meanings of the important terms used in the study.
Part 5, Delimitation of the Study, specifies the scope and coverage of the study.
Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study Capiz is a 1st class province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. It is dubbed to be rich in sea food products, and more likely to the brilliant Capiz shell that is produced here, making them as a decorative lantern, windows, vases, etc. Aside from this, the Province of Capiz also holds good fishing grounds and a major contributor in the aquamarine industry of the Philippines. To add, there are more to this in Capiz, with protected minerals, limestones, and gold from unexplored caves. (Captivating Capiz Brochure) Capiz is known for its seafood, but apart from that Capiz has a lot more to offer. Talking of many things to offer we have cultural, we have religious, we have food or palate heritage and most all of we have our own built heritage.
Traditionally, it is classified as intangible or tangible, movable or immovable, natural or cultural, personal or communal. Usually, heritage is perceived as something without use or practical value and has no return of investment. Moreover, some view its preservation as something contrary to modernization, westernization or globalization, which are concepts equated with development. (Zerrudo) Nowadays, the Province of Capiz nurtures the aesthetic beauty of the places. Several major events have been venue in the Province of Capiz and making this as a promotion to the developing province. Culinary tourism is now one of the boast of the province but to enhance the developing place several of the heritages are now open to the public for educational purposes and awareness. Apparently, the Province of Capiz also treasures the heritage of both ecological and cultural areas; it may be tangible of intangible aspects of heritage.
So much of Capiz contributed to the History of the Republic of The Philippines, many of the prominent persons came from the Province that made a great change to the renewal of the country, and many of the places have been preserved for the commemoration of the history that has happened in the place. Heritage conservation is action taken to sustain the value, meaning and significance of cultural resources from the past, for the use of the present and inspiration of future generations. And all decisions of conservation are based on the significance and meaning, the core value of a heritage resource. There are various types of significance such as historical, architectural, aesthetic, spiritual or social. It is established through physical, oral and archival research and study and is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, a setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects (Australia ICOMOS, 1999).
Heritage conservation is about protection and promotion of heritage significance or making heritage meaningful to the community. (Zerrudo) Heritage conservation maintains links with our past by preserving significant structures, historical and cultural sites and settings. Our built heritage is evidence of our political history and socioeconomic development; it reflects our shared values, and is tangible proof of Filipino excellence and creativity. This study is focused on examining how Tourism Students of Filamer Christian University are aware of the preservation of heritage sites in the Province of Capiz. Figure 1 shows the framework of the study.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 1. The participants’ assessment of awareness of the heritage sites and the preservation process of the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz as influenced by certain personal factors.
Statement of the Problem and the Hypotheses This study aimed to determine the perceived level of awareness of the Tourism Students of Filamer Christian University towards the heritage sites and the preservation process. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the level of awareness towards the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz are as assessed by the participants taken as an entire group and classifies according to: (a) age. (b) sex, (c) year level, (d) district? 2. What is the level of awareness of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management in Protecting and Preserving the Heritage Sites of Capiz and participants are taken as an entire group and classifies according to: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) year level and (d) district?
3. Are there significant differences in the level of awareness towards the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz are as assessed by the participants taken as an entire group and classify according to: (a) age. (b) sex, (c) year level, (d) district? 4. Are there significant differences in the level of awareness of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management in Protecting and Preserving the Heritage Sites of Capiz and participants are taken as an entire group and classify according to: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) year level and (d) district? 5. Are there significant relationships among the level of awareness towards the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz are as assessed by the participants taken as an entire group and classify according to: (a) age. (b) sex, (c) year level, (d) district? In view of the aforementioned problems, the following hypotheses were advanced:
1. There is no significance differences in the level of awareness towards the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz are as assessed by the participants taken as an entire group and classifies according to: (a) age. (b) sex, (c) year level, (d) district. 2. There is no significance differences in the level of awareness of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management in Protecting and Preserving the Heritage Sites of Capiz and participants are taken as an entire group and classifies according to: (a) age, (b) sex, (c) year level and (d) district. 3. There is no significance relationships among the level of awareness towards the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz are as assessed by the participants
taken as an entire group and classifies according to: (a) age. (b) sex, (c) year level, (d) district.
Significance of the Study
The results of this study may be beneficial to the following: Provincial tourism office. The result of this study may be beneficial to the provincial tourism office in developing the Province of Capiz as a tourist destination. Local government units. The local government units may use the findings from this research as a guide to develop the heritage sites in the Province of Capiz.
Local businessmen. Local businessmen may find the result of the study useful in customizing products to satisfy the needs of the tourist. Colleges and universities. The results of the study may provide insights to school administrators, especially those offering hospitality management programs in promoting community awareness and helping the Province of Capiz boosts its local tourism.
Researchers. The investigation may greatly help other future researchers who wish to replicates this study.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarity and precision, important terms in this study were given their conceptual and operational meanings: Awareness —
Heritage — a broad concept that includes tangible assets, such as a natural and cultural environment, encompassing landscape, historic places, sites and built environment as well as intangible assets such as collections, past and continuing cultural practices, knowledge, and living experiences (ICOMOS 1999).
Preservation — is the maintenance of something, especially something of historic value, in an unchanged condition.
Protection — is the act of preventing somebody or something from being harmed or damaged, or state of being kept safe. (Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved).
Review of Related Literature
A lot has been written about heritage tourism. Richards (1996; 2000) for example views tourism as heritage – it is one of the most powerful modern traditions. In a broad view, he connects heritage tourism with the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, gives the profile of cultural and heritage tourists and explains current trends and future directions of this type of tourism. Poria (2001) challenged the present approach to heritage tourism researching specifically the tourists’ perception of the site while Chen (1988) examines travel motivation of heritage tourists. Masberg and Silverman (1996) deal with visitor experiences at heritage sites. Bauman (1995) wrote about politics of historical representation of the heritage. The importance that must be given to local landscapes in the planning of cultural and/or historical attractions is the subject of Teo’s and Yeoh’s (1997) study on remaking local heritage for tourism.
The title of the Herbert’s (1995) book ‘Heritage, Tourism and Society’ reveals a broader approach to the issue although it is of a greater value to the heritage manager than the tourism practitioner since it relates mostly to exploration of the concept of heritage and its troublesome connections with tourism. Boniface and Fowler (1993) write about heritage and tourism in ‘the global village’ from the aspect of heritage sites protection assigning responsibilities to each of the actors in the chain. They also write about heritage presentation and interpretation. How museums compete with tourism in the production of ‘heritage’ is the subject of Kirshenblatt-Gimblett’s book ‘Destination Culture: Tourism Museums, and Heritage. The authors of the book reviewed here have previously also written a lot about the subject focusing on some of the aspects presented in the book in a more integrative way.
The previous list is only an excerpt from the existing literature on heritage tourism and shows how ‘hot’ this subject has been for more than a decade. Still, the authors mainly focus on one or two aspects of heritage tourism while the book Heritage Tourism probably for the first time provides a comprehensive review of the main issues and concepts relating to the subject. It considers the area broadly to include culture and nature in both urban and rural contexts, and presents an in-depth discussion of important global issues. Its inclusive approach to heritage as well to cultural tourism is of a great value since most of other texts focus only on one aspect of the heritage (for ex. built heritage, natural heritage). (Timothy & Boyd, 2003)
Cultural heritage, whether built or living, is one of the most salient elements of the global tourism system. Many destinations rely almost entirely upon art, culture and built patrimony for their economic well-being and most devout non-heritage destinations have some elements of culture that can be shares with visitors as part of the tourism product mix. More places, such as some Caribbean islands, are beginning to realize heritage as a potential tool for diversifying their tourism economics.
Heritage tourism encompasses all elements of human past and the visitor experiences and desire associated with them. Serious heritage tourist seeks meaningful, educational or spiritual experiences, or a combination of these. (Timothy, 2011)
Research Design and Methodology
This chapter has three parts: (1) Purpose of the Study and Research Design, (2) Methods, and Data Analysis Procedure.
Part One, Purpose of the Study and Research Design, restates the purpose of the study, describe the research design, and clarifies the variable used
Two (2) data gathering instruments used in the study were in the Index of Heritage Sites and the Preservation and Protection process. The questionnaires were taken at face value. Index of heritage sites (IHS). The Index of Heritage sites determined the awareness level of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management of Filamer Christian University. The Index of Heritage Sites and the Preservation and Protection process contained two columns. The first column contains the statement of awareness, while the second column requires the participants indicate the importance of different measurement items related to Level of Awareness of the existing Heritage Sites of the province of Capiz. The following scores and descriptions were used:
4 Conscious Competence
3 Unconscious Competence
2 Unconscious Incompetence
1 Conscious Incompetence