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Leadership style of best 5 leaders Essay

Give examples of µborn¶ leaders and µmade¶ leaders.
Born leader are the ones who have inborn qualities of an leader. Where else in case of made leader it is often an mentor who shapes a leader. Examples of such leader are given below:
Born leader: Dhirubhai Ambani, JRD Tata, Bal Thackeray
Made leader: K.M.Birla, Anil Ambani, Ratan Tata, I.K.Gujral, The difference is only of degree and no one can be identified as being completely born leader or made leader.

Management Styles
A management style is a distinctive way in which Planning, Organising, Actuating, Controlling and other management functions are performed. Given the many choices in the performance of each management function, an almost limitless number of management styles can be visualized.

In reality, however one encounters far fewer styles. This is because styles tend to be internally coherent. If a management chooses to coordinate activities participatively, it is also likely to set goals, develop strategies, control operations, etc. participatively rather than in an authoritarian manner. Styles tend to crystallize around major management convictions and commitments.

That is, their cores tend to be ideological in character, and commitment to a core management ideology- of risk-taking in business or conservatism, professionalism in hiring staff or intuitive choices, and so on- is likely to shape the rest of the style. These commitments are not randomly generated. Nor are they exclusively the commitments of the person who happens to be the CEO, although undoubtedly the CEO usually does play a significant role in the evolution of a style of management.

The style evolved has to be viable, that is it has to be able to measure up to real-life situations. A good deal of learning from experience plays a major part in the styles emergence. Social processes within the ranks of management, such as information and experience sharing,

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advocacy of points of view, political deals and so forth, also play a part. The purpose for which the organisation is set up and the social, legal and economic environment, in which it operates, too contribute to the viability of the style of management.

Good and Bad styles of Management
Human beings are an interesting species; they often talk about lofty ideals and perfection but practice quite the opposite.
Determined by the super-ego and identity, human behavior may be repulsive or sublime. Hence the style of management adopted is an expression of the thoughts in the mind of the decision makers and leaders.

Depending upon these thoughts the style could be good or bad. i.e. socially desirable or undesirable. In society, µgood styles¶ are referred as professional and participative. If there is variety in excellence, there is variety in incompetence. The corporate sickness and dysfunctional forms of bureaucracy and professional management have uncovered a large number of bad forms of management.

Describe the role of µKarta¶ in a Hindu Undivided Family:
Karta is the head of a µHindu Undivided Family¶ more commonly known as an HUF. The Karta of an HUF is the supreme authority in business matters. He is the leader of this organization. The other members of the family i.e. the co-parceners are not allowed to have their say in the matters relating to the organization. It is usually the Head of the family who is named the Karta.

DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS

Q 1)Critically analyze the leadership style and its central characteristic of the Indian leading industrialist: Rahul Bajaj , Dhirubhai Ambani, Mr. N.R Narayan

Murthy and J.R.D.Tata
Rahul Bajaj
Rahul Bajaj is the man who can be given credit for building Bajaj auto are the 4th largest two-wheeler manufacturer in the world. He has achieved an incredible growth rate of

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1852% in the last decade. Following are some of the points that explain the reason of his success.
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Education: Bajaj is a highly educated person. He has done his BA (Hons) and is a management graduate from Harward.

y

Concentration of Core Competency: Rahul Bajaj collaborated with Kawasaki for production of motorcycle but for scooter he did not go for any collaboration. Manufacturing scooters is his core competency and he does not want to experiment with that.

y

Customer is King: Bajaj has often been accused of exploiting the customers with delivery period of 10 years, black marketing, etc. but this is not true at the face value. A deeper insight brings to picture that there were other elements who are responsible for these accuses. Bajaj, in spite of a heavy demand, did not raise the price of his scooters and avoided exploitation of
customers.

y

Staunch believer in himself: Bajaj listens to each and everyone, but takes decision on his own. His organisation is a little centralized. In spite of strong oppositions, he sticks to his decisions.

y

Never give up attitude: µLicence Raj¶ was a nightmare for Bajaj. He does not believe in bringing Government officials and getting his license cleared. This is a major reason why Bajaj Auto came under MRTP and was allowed to expand its production capacity. But he did not give up to the Government conditions and after some years, done lobbying through business housed and putting tremendous pressure on Government learn his license.

y

Jach Welch¶s theory: Rahul Bajaj holds same views of Mr. Jack Welch, the former CEO of GE. He believes that if one is no No 1 or No 2, he should get out from that business. This principle kept him away from the four-wheeler market.

y

Attitude towards workers: Bajaj has less kind of words for workers. Still, there has been only one strike in the history of 35 years of the company. He takes care of the needs of the workers and at the same time, he views workers as a tool for production. In his word¶ ³Why do they strike and lose wages? They should work more, earn more´

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BBC: Rahul Bajaj is well known for his unflinching frankness and varied opinion on every topic under the sun. His office is therefore popularly known as BBC (Bajaj Broadcasting Corporation)

y

Straightforwardness: His quotes about the Governnment have found place in the headlines of many leading newspapers and magazines in India and have also raised controversies. But this does not stop him from doing what he considers correct.

All the above features are the hallmark of Bajaj. They has earned him a rare reputation as one of India¶s most successful industrialists.
Squeaky clean, he has never been involved in shady takeovers. He does not engage in street fights, nor has he ever hijacked someone else¶s project. He hasn¶t burnt tyres during hard drive for meteoric growth. On the contrary, he is something of a plodder, routinely burning the midnight oil, and devoted to the virtues of hard work. He¶s India¶s most admired industrialist along with Dhirubhai Ambani and the late Adity Birla.

Dhirubhai Ambani
When we talk about Indian leaders one name, which we cannot miss out, is Dhirubhai Ambani. He has voyaged through a journey of rags to riches. He was born on 28th December 1932 to a local schoolteacher in a village called Chorwad, in Junagadh district, Gujarat.

Dhirubhai has been an opportunist right from his childhood. All he needed was the whiff of a business opportunity and he was off to tap it. During the Mahashivratri fair, he would sell µganthia¶ a gujaratri savoury to earn money. Due to shortage of money, he left education after matriculation and went to Aden to earn money.

He worked for almost eight years in a petrol station where he learned about oil business until a day came when he was bitten by the entrepreneurial bug. He came back to Bombay to start his own business. He took a loan with which he started Reliance Commercial Corporation, which has been a stepping-stone to one of India¶s largest Corporation. They were involved in general merchandising.

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Dhirubhai has always shown all the critical leadership qualities. He would always grab an opportunity and strike on it. He then started his yarn business in the 60¶s and then he build his own spinning mill in 1966 known as Reliance Textile industries.

He believed that if a person wants to succeed in something then he should have complete access to information on that topic. Whenever he wanted to approach the government to get licenses, information about the competitors, market size etc. he would collect all these information, no matter at what cost it came. He also believes in destiny and gives all the credit to his luck. This shows how down to earth he is. Even today he has a simple ritual of Puja when a new machine is installed. He isn¶t proud of what he is and he still believes in µSimple thinking, Modern thinking.¶

He always followed the rule to be the pioneer/first to do anything. He would just grab an opportunity that would come up because of some government policy changes and would implement it successfully. He believed not in meeting demand but in creating demand. He always produced in large quantities. He was of the opinion that customer should be provided with best quality goods at the lowest price.

Moreover Dhirubhai as opposed to most other leaders wasn¶t expert in only one field. He was a manufacturing as well a marketing whiz. He knew how to offer the right product mix, identify markets and establish viable distribution structure, which holds true for one of his famous brand Vimal. He is also referred to as µ Manchester of India.¶

He didn¶t mind copying someone else¶s idea, which he could implement better than his competitors. As in the case of copying the concept of selling through showrooms for his brand Vimal to counter the resistance from the traditional markets which he copied from Bombay Dyeing. He always had the dynamism and confidence in future and was always ready to go against all odds. He always believed in himself.

He has always believed that his first responsibility is towards his company¶s shareholders and he was also concerned in protecting their interests. He also known as the µstock market messiah.¶ This is because when some Marwari clan were trying to bring down the

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price of his shares by short selling, he counter attacked them and in turn earned a hefty sum from them. He has always had a wide investor base and most of his subscriptions were over subscribed. He has always been an innovator in the financial market. He innovated and reintroduced successfully concepts like partial convertible bonds, fully convertible bonds etc.

He has been successful in manufacturing world-class products. He always believed in µThink big, think fast and think ahead.¶ He has never had an ego problem and he knew how to get his work done from people. He was never ashamed to µsalaam¶ anyone.

Another incident that shows his vision as a leader is that when Reliance¶s Patalganga Complex was damaged due to floods. Technical experts from Du Pont estimated hundred days to make the complex operational but Reliance had the complete complex operational in twenty-one days. This was possible because of Dhirubhai¶s vision, his confidence, his dedication proper logistical planning and making available all resources.

Dhirubhai has always believed in picking up the best talent. They have a motivated workforce. He only believes in providing leadership, vision and strategy. He thinks that he doesn¶t run his business but his business leaders do it. Dhirubhai is criticized for manipulating the government for his benefits.

Apart from that he has paid zero tax on corporate earnings for several years due to the loopholes in the system. He was also involved in manipulating the L&T board to gain control. Apart from that he was heavily criticized along with Pranab Mukherjee for buying shares under dummy companies which never existed.

But be it whatever Dhirubhai is one of the greatest leaders of India who has the zeal to achieve something big rather than just earning money and the obsession to build. He wants to work till his death.

As a true leader Dhirubhai had once said that, ³ People think I have finally arrived but I think I have just begun.´

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Mr. N.R Narayan Murthy
Mr. Narayan Murthy was born in a middle class family in Siddalghat in Karnataka, His father inculcated importance of determination, discipline and good values. Since childhood he had a very good academic record.

At present he is the Chairman of Infosys. Present market capitalization of Rs. 60,000 crores Infosys started with Rs.10, 000.Mr. Narayan Murthy is influenced by Mahatma Gandhi who µwalked his talk¶ and demonstrated by, Example He says he wants to be a doer and respects people who do things, rather than just talk. Some of the traits that differentiates him from others are:

y

His Underlying principle:
Is that, you undertake to do something you are confident of and have the capability to do it. This helps to lay the foundation to build a healthy relationship. He also believes that it is better to have a small part of a large, growing pie; than a large part of small shrinking one.

y

Simple living-high thinking:
A man who believes in µSimple living high thinking¶. Even though he has a personal wealth of Rs. 2,500 crores, his lifestyle remains modest. He lives in a simple 2-bed room flat in Santacruz-Mumbai.

y

Under-promising & Over-delivering:
He has tremendous respect for people and sound philosophy of ³under-promising & over delivering´. This helps him build a healthy long-term relationship with his colleagues, employees, family, friends, business associates and network of shareholders.

y

Pioneer in HRM:
Mr. Murthy says that his is an HR-based industry. Software is a knowledge business hence the focus is shifted to Brainware. It was he who started ESOP¶s that is real distribution of wealth. Now it is very common in the industry to have ESOP¶s but it

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has done wonders in Infosys. Thus Narayan Murthy is honestly awe-inspiring role model for professionals.

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Performance Oriented:
He is a man who always measures performance against value. According to Murthy peoples performance in the knowledge industry is as valuable as gold. Thus by introducing ESOP¶s he motivated his employees to work smart and hard.

y

Strategy: ( Customer is the King):
Even though there is a lot of competition in the market he believes in one thing that is, being unique in the market place and making sure that you are the 1st mover. Tap the need of the customer and give them more than they expect. Believes in giving value to the customer, being fair to people and transparency in working. Mr. Murthy says that ³Growth comes from repeat business, repeat business comes from relationships, and relationships with customers are built on trust and trust is built by delivering quality products.

y

Social being:
He believes in putting the public good ahead of private good in every decision he makes. This differentiates the developed world from the developing world. Infosys practices its Social responsibility very well. Rehabilitation drive, literacy programme, donations etc are few ways in which he works for the society.

y

Visionary:
Though Infosys had so many professionals it did not venture into dotcom because of the vision of Mr. Narayan Murthy. This saved them from going down. The downfall of dotcoms has not affected his business much. Before
starting Infosys this visionary got together with 6 professionals and wanted to start have India¶s first software company

of the professionals, for the professionals, by the professionals, and

because of his farsightedness Infosys has come this far and proved to be a winner. Thus Narayan Murthy is honestly awe-inspiring role model for the professionals.

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JRD TATA
When talking about India¶s greatest leaders, one name just cannot be skipped²J.R.D. TATA. For decades the sole Indian businessman, global leaders had ever heard of, was Tata. It¶s different today²the Sunday Times, Forbes and even the hallowed Harvard Business Review now carries articles written by Indian mgt. gurus on Indian case studies. But for years the world passed India by. Only J.R.D. Tata made an impact.

When J.R.D. became chairman of Tatas in 1938, British firms dominated the environment, but the House of Tata towered above all others. It had 14 companies with sales of Rs. 280 crores. The year he died, 1993, it was still India¶s biggest business house. Sales had mushroomed to Rs. 15000 crores and there were over 50 large manufacturing companies besides innumerable holdings and concerns. He was a distinguished and respected industrialist who was also awarded the ³BHARAT RATNA´, remarkable achievement.

What sort of value system made the great man achieve his greatness? Following is an analysis of some of the virtues & vices, which J. R. D. displayed through the course of his eventful life:
Virtues:
J.R.D. was«««
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Approachable: – J.R.D. had no problems making friends easily. He had one of the most comfortable personalities that was probably his benchmark of becoming a successful individual.

y

Diplomatic: – One of the most difficult talents is to say µno¶ in a nice manner. But Diplomacy was never a problem for J.R.D. Even when he was angry at Nehru for going against industrialists, he was never rude but made his point diplomatically and walked away friends.

y

Realistic: – J.R.D. never plunged into unviable projects, howsoever exciting they might be. He briefly flirted with the idea of making bombers with ³Tata Aircraft´² but despite his love for flying, he shot down the project himself when it became clear that there was no money to be made.

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Charismatic: – When J.R.D. was elected chairman of the group, there was no question about the selection. There was no one else who could have been chosen by the board. J.R.D. by then was a hero. The daring pilot, the shrewd businessman. He was already outstanding.

y

Courageous: – J.R.D. had always supported Nehru¶s views on socialism. Something that the board of Tata sons did not agree with. But J.R.D. refused
to sign the manifesto against socialism. It must have required considerable courage for a 30something to stand up for views, which differed so widely from those of the old guard.

y

Compassionate: – People talk of Russi Mody but he manipulated people. J.R.D. genuinely felt for workers. His approach to labor was that of Fabian socialism. After J.R.D.¶s entry, the management of Tisco changed its policy of confrontation. The trade union became not only acceptable but also an association which was vital to the interests of the workers.

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Supportive towards innovation: – Apart from his supportive attitude towards Tisco¶s lab technicians, perhaps Tata chemicals provides the best demonstration of J.R.D.¶s willingness to support innovation in his business and among his managers.

y

Aware of a sense of responsibility: – There were opportunities for J.R.D. where he was tempted to joined politics. But he rationalized to himself by concluding that he could do more for the country in business and industry than in politics. He says, ³I had no doubt that freedom was on its way. But who knows, I might one day have an opportunity to serve in more useful ways than by going to jail today!´

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Committed to values: – J.R.D. never believed in paying under the table for getting a license approved. He never believed in exploiting the workers, society and earning more profits. It was believed that wealth and respect are disjoint. J.R.D. was considered to be an exception to this rule.

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A visionary: – J.R.D. was the only director on the board of the Tata group who supported Ratan Tata¶s plan to enter high investment ± high risk industries like oil manufacturing & computers. He believed, that being that stalwart business house of India, such investments were a responsibility.

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Vices:
J.R.D. was«««..
y

Conservative: – J.R.D. always preferred the more conservative approach. His conservativeness left Tisco unprepared for the outbreak of the second world war and the license-permit raj of free India.

y

Aloof: – Unlike G.D. Birla, J.R.D. had kept aloof from the congress leadership. For a group that depends as much as the Tatas did on government patronage, this was a major lacuna.

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Bad tempered: – Instead of trying to patch up the differences, J.R.D. withdrew into himself. He rejected Nehru¶s invitations to the UN session in Paris, and the invitation to lead Indian Rare Earths, one of the first PSU¶s. J.R.D. forgot the Public Relations implications of these prestigious invitations and the signals his refusal emitted.

After going through the above virtues and vices of India¶s greatest
industrialist, we learn a lot about what it takes to be successful in business, career, and in ««««..life.

Q 2) Critically analyze the differences in the leadership styles of a family managed Indian business organizations and MNC¶s in India?
Ans.Family business is same like any other organization because essentially it is a venture for profit like any other MNC¶s. But the difference stems up because of the fact that family business is a fusion of business system and the family system this fusion is absent in other forms of organizations. This difference manifests itself in the style of leadership of an organization, which is given in detail below:

Variables under
consideration

Family managed Indian
business organization

Multi national corporations
in India

Born vs made leader

More often then not, made
leader
Many a times deviates from
policy formation, planning
etc. and role is reduced to
conflict manager engaged in

More of born leader

Role of a leader

Involved more in business

issues and concentrates in
formulating long term
business plans. Keeps away

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Funding strategy

Partnerships & strategic
alliances

Recruitment &
remuneration policy

Profitability &
empowerment

Strategic financial
planning

solving clashes and reduces
the role of leader to merely a
mediator
Conservative equity funding.
Does not believe in
µparticipative funding¶.
Domestic, local currency
funds are preferred financers
(mostly family friends or
relatives)
Family-relationships were
more important than µhigh
value ± high return
partnerships with outsiders¶.

Low wages, high job security
to the employees. Trusted
persons are generally
preferred to others who may
be better qualified.
As empowerment was
limited, employees were (at
the most) responsible for
volumes & costs. Sharing of
business results was missing.
Inward-looking, conservative
financial strategies are used
for business growth.

Decision making
process

Control is tight and is
achieved by posting relatives
of owners or members of
their community in decisionmaking process
Leader member
More of emotions based.
relationship
Leader holds sympathy for
others because they are his
own family members.
No one style can be said to be the best. Each style

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from day to day operations.

Capital has no colour or
quality. It has only cost &

applicability. Hence, µlive and
let live¶ policy with global
capital is welcome, with
hedging arrangements.
Do not bother for close
linkages. Growth is welcome,
from whatever sources
available
Higher wages with profitsharing but without job
security. Recruitment is based
on pure merits.
Extreme of empowerment is
possible i.e. an employee may
be treated as a µprofit centre¶.
µResponsibility Accounting¶
is predominantly used.
Long term strategic plans are
well-designed with greater
clarity.
Decentralized decision
making. There is more
delegation of authority

Relationship is very
professional and has empathy
towards other.
has its own advantages and

disadvantages. One cannot deny that, we need phase of multinational leadership style and grace of Indian family business style.

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Q 3) Depending upon the structure of task-high or low – analyse what impact will it have on leadership
Ans: Task structure refers to the degree to which the task is clearly defined. A bank teller¶s job has relatively high task structure; the branch manager¶s job has less. The nature of the situation, specifically the characteristic of the task affects the impact of the leader¶s behaviour on follower satisfaction and effort.

Basically, the leader chooses among four styles:
1. Directive. The leader tells employees what he expects of them, gives them guidance about what they should do, and shows them how to do it. 2. Supportive. The leader shows concern for the well-being and needs of her employees by being friendly and approachable.

3. Participative. The leader involves employees in decision making, consults with them about their views of the situation, asks for their suggestions, considers those suggestions in making a decision, and sometimes lets the employees make the decisions.

4. Achievementoriented. The leader helps employees set goals, rewards the accomplishment of these goals, and encourages employees to assume responsibility for achieving the goals.
Situational

Leadership styles

characteristics
Task

Directive

Supportive

Achievement

Participative

oriented
Structured

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Unstructured

Yes

No

Yes

No

Clear goals

No

Yes

No

Yes

Ambiguous

Yes

No

Yes

No

goals
When the task is structured; the supportive, achievement oriented and participative leadership styles are preferred. But the directive style of leadership is not preferable when the task is structured. This is because when the employees are aware of what the task they are supposed to finish there is no need for the employer to direct them.

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When the task is unstructured, the directive and achievement oriented styles are preferred rather than the supportive and participative style. This is because the employees are not fully aware of the task to be performed and therefore a leader who tells or helps employees to set goals would be more effective rather than a leader shows concern or involves employees. Consider the president of a new start-up company in which the ten employees are hand picked, the tasks are highly ambiguous, but the president¶s authority is clear. A directive or achievement oriented style would work well.

When the goals set are clear the leadership style that is preferred is supportive and participation. The only difference between a structured task and clear goals is that an achievement oriented leadership style is not preferred. This is because when the goals are already set, you don¶t require a leader who sets them and rewards them.

The last case where the task has ambiguous goals, the leadership style to be adopted is similar to that of the unstructured task. This is because one would require a directive and achievement oriented leader to set goals, instruct the employees, guide them, reward them when the goals are ambiguous.

Conclusion: there is no golden rule as to which leadership style to be adopted depending upon the task structure but the analysis given above would have a higher probability of success ratio so as to effectively lead.

Q 4) Explain the conservative, entrepreneurial, professional, bureaucratic and organic styles of management.
Along with the ten pure styles of management, a defective version of each pure style was also developed.The pure styles were developed on the basis of research done on management styles both in India and abroad, as well as extensive management consultancy and training experience. Similarly, the defective forms were conceptualized on the basis of research and consultancy and training experience.

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The ten pure management styles are the conservative style and the sharply contrasting entrepreneurial style, the professional style and contrary to it the intuitive style, the participative and the opposing authoritarian style, the organic or free form and the opposing bureaucratic style, the familial style or paternalistic style, and the altruistic style.

Some of the important ones are enumerated below:

a) The conservative style:
The essence of conservatism is conservation of what has worked in the past and has demonstrated survival value. The principle of survival is at the
core of the conservative style of management. Conservatism does not necessarily mean refusal to change. It means instead, caution in changing.

The pure conservative style was defined as follows:
µA cautious one-step-at-a-time approach to problems. Decisions are generally compromises between the conflicting demands of board, unions, government managers, customers, etc. Precedents and traditions are given importance. The primary concern is with stability and steady growth¶.

b) The entrepreneurial style:
While conservatism facilitates survival, enterprise facilitates conquest and the unfolding of opportunities for growth. The entrepreneurial style has emerged from this spirit of adventure, probing and innovation. Entrepreneurship not only creates new industries, opens up new markets and transforms old or mature industries, it also builds civilizations.

The pure entrepreneurial style was defined as follows: µactive search for big new opportunities; large, bold decisions despite the uncertainty of their outcome; a forceful leader at the top wielding great power; and rapid growth as the major organization goal¶.

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c) The Professional style:
A scientific approach, high level of formal expertise, reasonable consensus about do¶s and don¶ts and formal training are traits of a professional approach to management. One focus of this movement was the manual work performed in the organization. The other focus was managerial work performed in the organization.

The pure professional style was defined as follows: µsystematic search for growth opportunities and systematic anticipation of problems through formal
forecasts; a systematic consideration of costs and benefits of alternatives and a carefully coordinated formalized top management strategy¶. The

emphasis is on long-term planning,

professional management, a sophisticated control and information system and the extensive use of expertise and all-pervasive research before making decisions.

d) The Bureaucratic Style:
The core of bureaucratic style is quite primeval: management by programming the behavior of the members of collectivity. According to Max Weber, the bureaucratic mode of management was more efficient as well as more fair. It was more efficient because by programming everyone¶s behavior rationally the organization could operate like a welloiled machine. And it was fair because everyone knew what he or she was to be evaluated on.

The pure bureaucratic style was defined as follows: µa strong emphasis on smooth functioning by prescribing in writing objectives, procedures, rules, and the powers, duties and responsibilities of managers and other staff. The emphasis is on clear reporting relationships, precise job descriptions, formal communications, strict control and above all, correctness of procedures and accountability¶.

e) The Organic Style:
Following are some of the characteristics of organic management:y

Tasks are seen in their total contexts

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Continuous redefining of individual tasks through interaction with others, as during product design

y

Commitment to getting a job done overrides definitions of responsibilities, rights , obligations or methods to be used

The pure organic style was defined as follows: µA strong emphasis on the free flow of information and communication within the organization. Widespread awareness of the organization¶s goals, problems and business plan of actions among managers at all levels. Dislike for paperwork and formalized procedures and job descriptions. The emphasis is on administrative flexibility, openness, innovation, the importance of the effective problem solver, and above all on resourcefulness and getting things done¶.

Q 5 Explain the importance of values in leadership? How leader/managers should respond to human values?
Ans:Leadership is an indescribable ability based on concrete principles and a tool that anyone can learn that helps one guides an organization or group of people in a beneficial direction or to a valuable destination.

A value is something considered worthy in and of itself by a person or a group. It can be a one-word standard of conduct or a policy everyone in a company adheres to and believes in. it helps people to understand what is desirable behavior and what isn¶t. They are more powerful than rules.

Values play a very important role in everyone¶s life and also in leadership. A leader is someone who has followers. Thus he has to follow a pattern of ethics and values. Our nation needs ethical and imaginative leaders at every level. The future of the society depends on leaders who are capable of providing strong leadership, who understand that leadership means service, and who believe that their very citizenship carries the obligation to lead when circumstances require. The study of ethical leadership is a critical
component of any leader, and he must incorporate it along with the traditional emphasis on policy analysis and formulation.

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The long-term success of an organization, community or society depends on good leadership, not just on technical proficiency and skillful management. Good leadership must be grounded in ethical values. There are tensions between personal values and goals, on the one hand, and organizational, community, or societal values and goals on the

other.

Ethical

leadership

involves

recognizing

and

reconciling

those

tensions.

A leader should be able to identify human values and act on them. Human values include gratitude, loyalty, humility, patience, gentleness, dignity, honesty, etc. and a good leader has to consider all these characteristics.
It must be understood that archetypal human being in a sustainable, living earth system has to be nearer the ascetic rather than in acquisitive type, even if the former re-emerges conspicuously only a hundred years or more.

Therefore to be a leader Reflection is essential i.e. he should respond to a particular situation as it generates the inner toughness needed to be an effective person of action. Leadership is the sum of two vectors: competence (your specialty, your skills, your know-how) and authenticity (your identity, your character, your attitude). For e.g. When leaders get stuck, they tend to apply more steam, more competence, to what got them into trouble in the first place: “If I try harder, I’ll be successful,” or “If we exert more control, we’ll get the results we need.´

The problem is, when you’re stuck, one not likely to make progress by using competence as his tool. Firstly, the leaders need to dedicate to understanding himself better, in the philosophical sense of understanding what it means to exist

as a human being in the

world. Second, need to change his habits of thought, for e.g. how you think, what you value, how you work, how you connect with people, how you learn, what you expect from life, and how you manage frustration. Changing those habits means changing ones way of being intelligent. It means moving from a nonleadership mind to a leadership mind.

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Values are extremely powerful and they guide the leaders to identify what human behavior is acceptable and what behavior is not while practicing leadership. Leadership and learning are important individual values and form a symbiotic relationship for a leader.

Q 6)Does leadership style change according to situation?
Any style of leadership cannot be successful under any situations. Although a leader tends to have one dominant style, but he needs to make alterations depending upon the situation. By taking example of work in an organisation, different styles of leadership and different situations can be explained as follows:

Different leadership styles are:
1. Autocratic: leaders with this style centralise the power and decision making in themselves. The employees are expected to do what they are told. Autocratic styles mostly is negative, that is, it is based on threats and punishments, but sometimes it is positive as it also gives rewards to employees. 2. Consultative: a leader adopting this style makes decisions after consulting groups. He is supportive and accessible.

However he retains the responsibility with

himself.
3. Democratic: A leader making most use of this style shows that he has greater confidence in his employees. The decision-making is placed in the hands of the whole group. All members participate actively and the leader only supports.

The situation in the work environment can change based on the following parameters:
1. Employees¶ task:

it may be structured or unstructured, routine or new and

challenging. Structured task requires less backing from a leader, but when task is highly unstructured, the employee will not be motivated to work if his leader does not guide him.
2. Leader-member relation: this shows how is how is the leader¶s acceptance in the group and what is the attitude of the employees, i.e. whether they
like to work independently or want more support.

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The main aim behind finding all this is to evaluate whether the situation is favorable or unfavorable and accordingly he has to adjust his style to get the desired output. This is because, the situation (the external environment) cannot be changed, but the leadership style can be changed as per the demand of the situation. For example, when an emergency order has to be completed, the decision cannot be left on the employees of how they will execute the order.

The leader has to be quick, take decision on his own and has to have the capability that everyone follows his isstructions. Although, under normal circumstances he may be allowing group participation, but in that course of time he should develop such credibility that his authority is not challenged and accepted without resistance during emergency. Similarly, if the situation demands creative thinking, he can get the best out of his employees if he allows group participation. To stimulate creative thinking, he has to give them more liberty even though otherwise he has always centralized the decisionmaking process.

The leader sets an example for his followers and his success depends on his ability to handle different situations. It can be noted that any leader has one style permanent that makes him a leader, that differentiates him from the others and that has made him the leader.

But that cannot be so rigid that it becomes a hurdle in managing

situations.

In the dynamic environment, where things change rapidly, one style of working cannot be an answer to all situations. However, one ting has to be permanent, the determinacy to get the work done from employees under all
situations and to keep that unchanged, the styles need to be changed.

LEADERSHIP
Concept Questions:

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1. List five popular Indian industrial leaders who practice Indian management thoughts.
Ans: (1) Kumar Mangalam Birla,
(2) JRD Tata,
(3) S. P. Godrej,
(4) Rahul Bajaj,
(5) Chitale (Pune),
(6) Singhania,
(7) Kirloskar

2. Describe Indian styles of leadership.
Ans: Most of the present days industrial leaders have come from the illustrious families of industrialists like those of G. D. Birla and JRD Tata, Jamnalal Bajaj, etc. before independence the Indian industrialist were mostly working as the Managing Agents of the British Companies or were engaged in the trading of cotton, food-grains, oil, etc.

Jamshedji Tata and Ghanashyam Das Birla were perhaps the first enlightened industrial leaders who dared to start industrial houses in British India, despite discouraging British policy of levying heavy excise and custom duties on Indian manufactured goods.

These industrialists started their industries from the scratch and against the desire of the British rulers. Labour was abundant but not duly trained. They had no work culture. The industrialist started not only training the local workers to handle the latest machines but even provided for their provident fund, medical treatment, housing and schooling of children, even before the labour law was enacted. Whatever standards or norms these industrialists had laid down became the foundation of the labour laws in the near future. These industrialists were also required to support the freedom struggle in every form.

Although the present generation of these industrial leaders is now ruling the industrial empire, they are playing a very important role in

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development of Indian economy. Since they belonged to the families of industrialists, they are bound to safeguard the family interests of their houses. Yet it would be injustice to brand them as traditional industrial managers, having no vision of the future. On the contrary, they have been revolutionizing the leadership styles. They are becoming more professional. They have sponsored the higher educational and management training facilities, employed management trainees in responsible positions. Some noteworthy Chief Executive Officers of their industries are not hailing from industrial houses.

In working environment also they have brought out several healthy practices. Considering the Indian Cultural characteristics, S.P.Godrej, e.g. stopped the use of animal fat in manufacture of soap long back. They have developed vase track of land in Mumbai into green belt of their own volition. They observed Indian cultural festivals and traditions of Puja of machines, and vehicles on Dassera, Diwali etc. and involve the family members in such events. They consider each individual worker as a member of the family. Workers¶ participation at every possible level is being tries.

The enlightened industrial houses do not find difficulties in labour problems, as some industrialist believe in transparency in the decision-making process and workers participation. They are developing continually learning environment. E.g. XLRI at Jamshedpur is a renowned training institute, which conduct surveys and promote studies in various problems and principles.

A worker is taken a whole and treated with due respect. Some industrial leaders are trying to provide facilities for meditation and Yoga practices, sponsoring sports etc. Globalization and IT environment is posing a greatest challenge to the industrial leaders as well as labour. Involvement of labour in the decision making process is likely to increase due to cut throat competition in the near future.

3.Give examples of µborn¶ leaders and µmade¶ leaders.

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Born leaders are those charismatic personalities whom people expect to

lead. E.g. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was a born leader. A born leader does not necessarily mean a person born in the rich or privileged family and on whom the leadership develops through inheritance. Inheritance does help develop the leadership qualities. But some leaders are born with the charismatic qualities, such physical stature, fair skin, pleasing personality, intelligence etc. being born in the family of privileged people alone does not make a person a good leader. Some children of the privileged persons are seen to have spoiled their life.

4. Good and bad styles of Management
Ans.1.Country Club Management: No regard for production. Only happiness of the people is considered important. People¶s needs are satisfied, friendly, comfortable organization climate. Not suitable for production and productivity. 2.Weak Management: no concern for people or for the production. Minimum efforts spent for getting work done. Low morale.

3.Task Management: No concern for peoplebut very high concern for production. Efficiency results from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. 4. Average Management Functions: Adequate performance. Satisfactory level of morale. 5.Team Management: Work accomplishment. Committed people, interdependence, common tasks, trust, respect, high people concern and high production concern, ideal situation.

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Describe the role of Karta in Hindu Undivided Family(HUF)
The main economic activity in India is still agriculture and allied industry. Industrialization has not yet reached the peak of its development. 75% of the population is still living in the villages. One of the characteristics of the economy based predominantly on agriculture is ³Joint Family´. Agriculture activity is labour intensive. It sustains large joint families. This still holds good in India, particularly in villages. Joint family is headed by the eldest member who is called µKarta¶ of the family. He is the leader of the family and he takes all the important decisions pertaining to the family and individual family members.

All the members in the family are dependent upon the karta of the family from financial point of view as well as personal and psychological point of view. In a joint family care of the children, aged, women, physically or mentally handicapped or sick members is taken. They can feel secure and happy in the joint family. A sense of discipline, culture, customs or traditions are developed in such Joint families, which are binding on all the members. While there are some good points about the joint not get the due importance or they may not get the opportunity to show their talent.

By and large Joint families with an enlightened Karta can be most ideal phenomenon for self development and security. Karta holds the property and rights as a sort of trustee on behalf
of the beneficiaries.

Industrial leaders in India have emulated some of the paternalistic qualities of karta in a Joint family system, in their industries. Workers are treated as the

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members of the family system of the industry. The Chief assumes the role of the karta for them and ensures that they feel secure and happy in the industrial environment. In some industries, even old employees are not ignored after their retirement. They are allowed to participate in the working of the company with less hazards and physical exertion. They are listened for their advice. As a karta of the family Industrial Leader is supposed to treat every person as a whole human being and potential God.

With the concept of Karta the concept of Trusteeship must be linked with. A Karta hold the property or business in the capacity of the trustee rather than as the lawful owner. He carries on the business of the family or a company for and on behalf of the beneficiaries. He has no doubt a right maintenance out of the property and remuneration. But his role is that of a trustee.

In Business environment, CEO or the manager is supposed to exercise his powers so as to subserve the interests of the employees, families of the employees, retired employees, sick or old members of the organization, customers, investors, environment and also the community at large. With the authority of Karta he has also an obligation towards the beneficiaries.

He is accountable to the beneficiaries for the decisions he make. This is the gandhian-concept. He had observed that all those who are enjoying the powers and wealth have a duty to hold and exercise the powers and wealth as trustees for the beneficiaries.

Characteristics of some of the leading business industrialists in India Ans.
Azim Hashim Premji, Chairman, Wipro Being richest man in India, yet, Azim Premji can be characterised as a shy and reticent leader and a man of simple style and tastes.

He believes that successful organisations prepare for the future, and the customer is the key to his future. He has charted a clear vision for Wipro, and has tried to

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bring in human values other than those of integrity, innovation and value-formoney. Known for an almost fanatical obsession with excellence, he invests personal time in teaching and coaching future leaders of the corporation to achieve their potential

He is a visionary and succeeds in getting his basics right in a constantly changing and dynamic technology age. According to him, what is important is not one¶s existing knowledge alone, but one¶s ability to keep refreshing it dynamically The success of Wipro can be accounted to his integrity, unshakable selfconfidence, determination and effort to better global competition, relentless work towards achieving this and its ability to acquire world-class processes, develop world-class teams and attract world-class leadership.

Premji has been criticised by the media and people from time to time that the wealth he had created was not being shared enough. This, being a valid criticism, however, the number of crorepatis that Wipro has spawned would have one believe otherwise.

Azim Premji serves as a source of inspiration to many. For a person who studied engineering, is an alumnus of Stanford University, US, and joined Wipro in 1966 at the age of 21, Premji has traversed a long way.

He has transformed a company that sold edible oil into one which is working on the cutting edge of technology. And in the process, he has become a global-scale enterpreneur.
He¶s a firm believer of an honest day¶s work, though of course his workday stretches from 12 to 14 hours.

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Azim Premji serves as inspiring for hundreds of techies ± around the country and within the company ± to strike out on their own.
Rahul Bajaj
Rahul Bajaj, Chairman of the Rs. 1902.38 crore two-wheeler major Bajaj Auto being a boxer during his college days still carries an aggressive attitude. He is very vocal when it comes to the need for a level playing field for domestic enterprises.

He believed that the government owed it to the domestic industry to offer enough time to put its house in order before forcing it to compete against global giants. Bajaj formed the Bombay Club in 1993 when liberalisation threw open the doors to foreign competition. Stung by brickbats, a year later, the club was reduced to a one-man show. This did not deter Bajaj who even today continues to be as vociferous as ever. This was a example of his strong mindedness.

Bajaj today is no longer involved in the day-to-day running of his company at Pimpri-Chinchwad in Pune. After a heart attach in 1994, that’s been left to efficient managers and his two sons — Rajeev and Sanjeev. However, his sons were not allowed to gatecrash into the boardroom but were put through the rigours of

the

shopfloor.

Even after delegating his work to his sons, Rahul Bajaj remains an autocratic leader by nature. Though, Bajaj is no longer involved in Bajaj Auto, yet decisionmaking by consensus is not his style and he continues to be the last word at Bajaj Auto.

He does consult other people’s opinion in key matters and give them a fair hearing, But does not believe in taking a vote. He alone makes the decisions.

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Depending upon the structure of task-high or low-analyse what impact will it have on leadership?
A standard way of classifying leadership styles is based on the relative concern the leader places on the task to be performed vis-à-vis the people performing the task. A leader who places greater emphasis on task performance tends to exhibit the following behaviours´

1. Organising and defining the roles of group members
2. Explaining what activities each has to do and when, where and how tasks are to be accomplished
3. Establishing well-defined patterns of organisation, channels of communication and ways of task accomplishment.
A leader who places greater emphasis on people tries to gain their relationship by exhibiting such behaviours as:
1. Establishing channels of communication
2. Extending psychological support to them
3. Developing mutual trust
4. Developing empathy for them.
Depending on the task emphasis or people emphasis four combinations are possible as shown in the following diagram:

High

High relationship and low task

High

task

and

relationship

(Supporting style)
style)
People

(Participative

high

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Emphasis
Low task and low relationship

High

task

and

low

relationship
(Free-rein style)
Low

(Autocratic style)

Task emphasis
Low
H

igh
1. High task and low relationship: A high task and low relationship leader emphasises showing employees how to get the task accomplished and spends minimum time giving psychological support. This style may be effective where the employees are inexperienced with the work to be performed. It may also be well suited to situations where seasonal help is required. Seasonal employees may be unfamiliar with the task and require direct guidance on performing the work properly. A high task low relationship leader is not necessarily rude or discourteous. The leader simply takes the expedient route of focussing on work rather than people.

2. High task and high relationship: This leader spends considerable time showing people how to get work accomplished and providing them with psychological support. The high task and high relationship style is considered useful because it results in high productivity and personal satisfaction. A more critical look at this style would suggest that it works best in situations where people need an active and involved leader. When employees are lacking in self-confidence and technical skill, the high task and high

relationship style is particularly effective.

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3. High relationship and low task: A leader using the high relationship and low task style gives employees much encouragement and
support

but

a

accomplishment.

minimum
In some

of

guidance

situations

about

employees

the

task

need

more

psychological support rather than technical instructions.
4. Low relationship and low task: A leader using this style is neither here or there. It is essentially a free-rein style. Subordinates are given considerable latitude in performing their work. They are also given very little psychological support, encouragement and praise. They are therefore; free to run their own show. When subordinates are highly skilled and psychologically mature, this style can be effective.

Entrepreneurial leadership style
Entrepreneur is a person who converts an innovative idea into business. The word entrepreneur is generally associated with small-scale industry. What is an entrepreneurial leadership style? Based on both their personality characteristics, and the circumstances of operating a business, many entrepreneurs use a similar leadership style. The most notable features of this style are:

Impatience and brusqueness towards employees because the
entrepreneur is always busy.
A heavy task orientation combined with a very direct approach in giving instructions to employees.
A charismatic personality that inspires others to want to do business with him despite the impatience.
A much stronger interest in dealing with customers than employees. A strong dislike for bureaucratic rules and regulations.  Anxiety to consolidate business gains as quickly as possible

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Role of Transformational leadership
In explaining the concept of transformational leadership, two styles of leadership are talked of, viz. transactional and transformational. Transactional leaders determine what subordinates need to do in order to achieve their own and organisational objectives, classify those requirements, and help subordinates become confident that they can reach their own objectives by expending the necessary efforts.

Transformational leadership implies a process where by an individual attempts to elevate his or her consciousness (chetana) so that various commonplace conflicts and dualities begin at a higher level of synthesis. Stated differently, transformational leadership attempts to change the whole organisation from one style or culture to another.

Transformational leadership has the ultimate aim of raising the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both the leader and the led. The leader¶s main thrust is to elevate, inspire and evangelise his followers (and himself/herself) to higher things in life.

The late JRD Tata is a fine example of a transformational leader. His qualities of the head and heart moved everybody who ever came into contact with him. If Tata group of companies stand distinct in our corporate world- in terms of profitability, professional management and social responsiveness- credit goes to the transformational leadership of JRD.

Transformational leaders are characterised by their distinct skills. They are: anticipatory skills-foresight into a constantly changing environment; visionary skills-a process of persuasion and example by which a person or leadership induces a group to take action in accord with the leaders purposes or, more likely, the shared purposes of a larger group;

valuecongruence skills- the need of a corporate leader to be in touch with the employees needs in order to engage people on the basis of shared motives, values and goals, empowerment skills- the willingness to share power and to do so effectively; and self understanding- introspective or self understanding skills as well as

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frameworks within which leaders understand both their own needs and goals of those of their employees.
We need more transformational leaders for our economy. Our country is now thrown open for global competition. Foreign companies are entering our country in a large number. In order to maintain our dignity and to sustain our ethos and at the same time to accept what is good for our business we need more transformational leaders.

Explain the role of leadership character in management.
It is said that one cannot do business with yesterday¶s methods and be in business tomorrow. A manager has to develop good leadership qualities in order to take the company to the top. The style keeps changing as the situation with the types of people. Korean managers were able to do better compared to Japanese as they developed managerial leadership quality, which is flexible and open. This led to success of Koreans in America and even in India.

Management is a process of planning, organising, coordinating, directing and controlling the activities of others.
Leadership is the process of influencing for the purpose of achieving shared goals. A successful manager is one who has both the qualities, of the leader and the manager, and who makes use of them discretely.

Leadership is a psychodrama in which a brilliant lonely person gains control of himself for controlling others. Managers and leaders are different kind of people. They differ in motivation, personal history and in how they think and act. An effective manager requires changing leadership styles but should have good verbal communication with good listening power, manage time and stress, managing individual decisions, recognizing defining and solving problems etc.

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Leadership style should blend with managerial functions. Leadership inevitably requires using power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people. An effective manager gets the job done through high quantitative and qualitative standards of performance with satisfaction and high degree of commitment. A managerial culture emphasizes rationality and control.

Manager has to achieve results so that people will continue to contribute to this organization. It takes neither genius nor heroism to be a manager, but persistence, tough mindedness, hard work, intelligence, analytical ability, tolerance and goodwill.

Today Manager¶s role has undergone change. A mesh of managerial qualities with leadership ability will be the key to success of managers in today¶s environment. We do not need managers only but Managerial Leaders.

Does leadership style change according to the situation?
Leadership Style: Dynamic and effective leadership is considered by all to be one of the major requirements of successful management. Leadership, in simplest of terms, is the ability to persuade others to seek defined goals and objectives enthusiastically.

Leadership style is the pattern of behaviours used by the leader to influence the behaviour of others

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Situational Leadership: Leadership style is generally talked in terms of two extremes ± an autocratic (directive) and a democratic (supportive) style. Autocratic leaders used position power and their authority to get results while democratic leaders used personal resources (power) and involved others in participative problem solving and decision-making.

No One Best Style: Though some claim that there is one best style that maximizes productivity, satisfaction and growth in all situation, further research in the last several decades has clearly supported the view that there is no one best leadership style: Successful leaders are able to adapt there style to fill the requirements of the situation.

While the situational approach to leadership does make much sense, it is not very helpful to practicing managers, who have to make leadership decisions everyday. If “it all depends on the situation”, they would like to know when to use what style.

A number of situational factors influence which leadership style will be appropriate in which situation. These factors include time frames, job and task demands, Organizational climate and the superiors¶, peers¶ and subordinates¶ skills, values and expectations. If every time all these factors have to be analysed by the managers, it will result in, what is called paralysis by analysis, and consequent inaction.

The immediate key factor that a leader takes into account is the subordinates. In particular, the amount of direction and support a leader should provide depends on the Development Level that the subordinates show on a specific task, function or objective that the leader is attempting to accomplish through individual or group. Development Level: Development Level is defined as the competence and commitment of the subordinates to perform a particular task.

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When thinking about someone¶s development level it becomes necessary to remember that people are not “fully developed” or “under developed”. Development level is only a task specific concept. People tend to be at different levels of development depending on the specific task, function or
objective they are assigned.

Matching Leadership Style to Development Level: In determining what style to use with what development level, leaders need to provide their people with what they cannot do for themselves. For example, s shop floor worker needs to be lead by direction, while a sales executive needs to be led differently. It all depends on the maturity of the person being lead.

Increasing Performance Potential Situational leadership as described so far, is helpful for a practicing manager trying to determine what leadership style to use with the follower in a particular situation, on a particular task. Leader not only diagnoses the development level of his followers but also has the responsibility to enable the subordinate to grow to increase this development level. This is done through training.

Conclusion
Effective managers know their subordinates well enough to flexibly manage everchanging demands upon their organizations. As responsibilities and tasks are assigned to individuals and groups, Development level must be assessed. The manager should then vary his/her leadership style in response to the individual¶s development level. It should be kept in mind that over time subordinates and subordinate groups develop their own pattern of behaviour and ways of operating, i.e. norms, customs, traditions etc. While a manager may use a specific style for the work group as a group, that manager may quite often have to behave

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differently with individual subordinates because they are at different levels of development.
It is this shifting forward and backward in style that makes situational leadership a truly developmental model for both managers and subordinates.

Critically analyze the differences in the leadership styles of family managed Indian business organization and MNC¶s in India
Indian work organizations can be classified into three pats which have some distinctive features and consequently the different leadership styles. Such classification

may be (i) family-managed traditional organisations, (ii)

professionally managed Indian organisations and foreign-owned organisations, [and (iii) public sector organisations.]

In family-managed traditional organisations, the most prevalent style is autocrativc. Sons and grandsons of the entrepreneurs are automatically promoted without any consideration to efficiency or overall suitability. Thus, there is management by inheritance or management by chromosomes with the result that these organisations are highly centralised in their organisation, a certain amount of the paternalistic attitude prevails.

The proprietary character of business and largescale participation of family members in it have made the attitude of the head of the business, who is also the head of the family, highly paternalistic. The same paternalistic attitude extends to the employees and have developed a set of values vis-a-vis his employees. At the initial stage, authoritarian style is more suitable which these organisations have followed. However, such style has also been inherited by successors without any change or modification.

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On the other hand, there many organisations in the private sector owned by Indians or by multinationals who have appreciable degree of participation or democratic leadership. The reason is that multinationals do not bring only their technology but also the work culture which is more permissive and conducive towards the application of modern approach of management. As such, degree of participation is greater in such organisations.

The third categories of organisations are in public sector. Here, bureaucratic style is more prevalent owing to the work culture inherited by public sector managers. Initially, public sector organisations are manned by civil servants who brought a lot of bureaucratic culture with them. The net result is that the entire organisational processes are governed by bureaucratic model. Its implication is status differentials, class distinctions, and impersonal relationships with work against participative style.

Explain the importance of values in leadership. How leaders/managers should respond to human values.
Values shape and give significance to our lives. They are reflected in the priorities that we choose, the decisions we make and the actions we take. Values describe what the organization is about and give meaning to stake holders.

Leadership has to be built on a strong foundation of values. Values not only make success enduring, but also help in building strong, resilient organization that can stand up to any crisis along the way. Values need leaders to be absolutely transparent in whatever they do. Every action of the leader must stand public scrutiny. Values transmit trust, which is a very powerful cementing force for the organization in these changing times.

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Successful leaders recognize that shared values increase commitment and productivity. Through shared values, visions and goals, each individual possesses an accurate view of the “larger picture” and understands what the organization as a whole is trying to accomplish. Explicit values provide
organizations with an efficient way to build commitment, guide decision-making, align actions, increase potential capability, and achieve a state that unites members in effective performance.

Alignment of business vision, goals, strategies, policies and practice has always been key to the effectiveness and success of organizations. But traditional ways of achieving this do not provide the flexibility and responsiveness necessary for a customer-focused stance in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. Alignment now has to be achieved through a shared understanding of what is important to the organization, its employees, and its customers – that is through shared value priorities.

A basic set of values, which a leader must possess, are integrity, honesty, building and maintaining good relationships, trustworthiness and being there for one¶s followers. Leaders should maintain their own balance, and at the same time try to do good to others, be selfless and be so strong that they convince others of their strength, not through thoughtless or violent actions, but through their firmness dignity and inner strength.

The leaders should cultivate real non-violence, which is the greatest strength and power of endurance that a man can attain. It means the greatest courage coupled with the greatest love. It also means total absence of hatred. Hatred is as bad as attachment. Anger is as bad as lust. Leaders should not try to elbow out others or sacrifice others for the sake of their self-interest, or in the interest of those who are dear to them. Leaders should have compassion and love

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for others. When a leader sees the self in all people and all people in the self, then he hates no one. This is the recurring theme in the Upanishads. When one realizes the self, one hates none. Anger, hatred, untruthfulness, greed unchastity or helpless dependence on others – these shift the center
of gravity away from the essential integrity and create conflict and discord.

When it gets tough, like when there has to be cuts in salaries, etc., the leader should do just that – lead. They need to not only be the one who is rewarded the greatest when all is well, but they need to be the first to sacrifice.

Theextraordinary leader says, “I know many of you are concerned with the salary cuts. I am too. In the long run we will be healthy again but for the mean time, this is necessary. Understanding this, I want you to know that I am taking a 20 percent pay reduction myself. I want you to know that we are in this together.” The extraordinary leader is the first to sacrifice and will be rewarded with the loyalty of his or her followers.

Panic is one of the basest of human emotions and no one is immune to it. The extraordinary leader, however, takes time out regularly to think the issues through so they can remain calm. They remind themselves that all is not lost and there will be another day. They remind themselves that being calm will enable them to make the best decisions – for themselves and for their followers. Panic only leads to disaster, while calm leads to victory.

Leaders forgive the mistakes of others. Indeed, a touchstone of a healthy and µmoving¶

organisation

is

forgiveness.

This

sense

of

tolerance

and

acknowledgement of our shared humanity is a spiritual quality, which good leaders possess.
Developing the values of patience and perseverance become essential for any leader. These values gain him respect even among competitors.

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Research has shown that the ethical standards of an organization impact upon the efficiency of that organization. They affect staff job satisfaction, staff commitment to the organization, as well as turnover in and levels of stress experienced by staff. In short, the research findings support the argument that good ethics are good business.

Unethical practices result in loss of public confidence and tarnished reputations. Stress is an expensive and on-going problem. Research suggests that a poor ethical culture in an organization can contribute to work place stress.

Leaders inculcate values in their followers by:
a. Direct communication with staff through regular talks and discussions; b. Supporting those discussions by their attendance and by reference to concrete examples of practices or circumstances that may be, or may be seen to be, unethical;

c. Discussing specific ethical issues that staff can relate to, rather than having a philosophical discussion about abstract values. The discussion of ethical issues should become a normal part of the manager¶s job;

d. Communicating their own beliefs in the core ethical values of the
organization through their own actions;
e. Putting in place systems that reward ethical behaviour and punish unethical behaviour. These must be applied so that they are seen to be actively rewarding desirable behaviour and not just punishing unethical behaviour; f. Establishing guiding principles for appropriate behaviour. These should include, but not be limited to, a code of conduct that can help guide decisions in a diverse range of situations.

Explain the role of leadership character in management.

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Leadership has been defined as ³the capacity to translate vision into reality´. The importance of a leader cannot be overemphasised. Leadership is the process of committing a group of people to specific goals. Without leadership, an organisation would be like a ship without an anchor. A leader not only commits his followers to organisational goals, he also pools needed resources, guides and motivates subordinates to reach the goals.

When talking about leadership in the organisational context, one question that pops up in the mind is that are managers in the organisation the same as leaders? The line dividing the two terms is blurred. Managers and leaders are essentially different kinds of people. They differ in motivation, personal history and in how they think and act. Managers carry out the management functions assigned to them but leaders have much higher goals than simply managing the affairs of the company.

They have a great vision and want to take their organisation to unbelievable heights with the able support of employees. It has been pointed out that ³ management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things. Managements efficiency lies in climbing the ladder of success, leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.´ To be really effective in the organisation and take it to greater heights, mangers should imbibe leadership qualities. They should adopt the following traits of effective leadership:

They should observe and absorb
They should learn how to listen to their subordinates
They should welcome new ideas
Time should be highly valued
They should set regular goals
Achievements should always be anticipated
Their approach should be organised.
They should be great motivators

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Leader empowers people and gets the work done. Empowerment can lead to greater commitment, which goes much ahead of self-gain. This selfless approach leads to better productivity from people. Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri are good examples who empowered people. Computer revolution by Rajiv Gandhi is typical example of empowerment.

Examples of managers who are effective leaders are Verghese Kurien of AMUL, NR Narayanmurthy of Infosys KV Kamath of ICICI, Deepak Parekh of HDFC, Ashank Desai of Mastek etc. these leaders have taken their organisations to great success and proved that the sky is indeed the limit if you have the vision and commitment to succeed


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