Internationalisation of the hotel industry has reached the top of corporate agendas and many hotel chains began to realise that the international business environment is going to be fundamentally different from that of the past and that their HRM strategies require attention. Organisational leadership are numerous, however, the hospitality sector has received a great deal of attention in these, in particular, the links between leadership and delivery of quality at the point of service. The hospitality sector face particular challenges with regard to motivating service staff, who are often working in less well paid positions but who are of vital importance for effective service delivery. Motivational leaders can address this situation in a number of ways, in particular by:
* clarifying and promoting organisational goals;
* encouraging employees to work towards these goals;
* demonstrating excellent performance; and
* providing positive feedback to employees.
A large part of Hilton’s famous consistency springs from a global approach to training – with the online “Hilton University” a prime example. This promotes a set of shared values which in turn creates a feeling of pride in working for the company. A lot of emphasis is placed on coaching General Managers to act as good role models for their staff.
Theories of leadership & Motivation: The transactional and transformational leadership theories and their related characteristics and behaviours are going to be explored to insure we have positive and successful data to guide future leaders in the hospitality industry. Transactional Leadership- Leadership through the rewards and punishment Transformational Leadership- Leadership through inspiration, passion, and vision. The transformational/transactional leadership dichotomy was introduced by Downton (1973) in his study of political leadership; to Downton, transformational leadership was characterised by a mutually-motivational relationship between leader and follower. Downton contrasted transformational and transactional leadership in his study of the differences among revolutionary, rebellious, reform-oriented and ordinary leaders. This distinction between transformational and transactional leadership orientations was later utilised by Burns in his seminal work.
Leadership which examined the political, social, and psychological dimensions of leadership and examined its moral dimensions using Kohlberg’s hierarchy of moral development. Transactional (ordinary) leadership is based on an exchange relationship in which follower compliance (effort, productivity, loyalty) is exchanged for expected rewards. Implementation strategy of firm established annual goals, policies need advice, to motivate and support staff that prepared the allocation strategy can be executed in the Hilton Group plc.
This strategy includes to implement ion of cultural support, creating an effective organizational structure, re-direct marketing efforts, preparing budgets, developing and information system and organizational performance, employee compensation uniting. The Hilton’s structure affects the behaviour of people and employee – between the units rivalry, competition for resources, collaborative spirit, teamwork, internal politics and belief system to all affected how people work, how they approach work and hard work will be of course, their performance. Factors that help in implementation of motivation and leadership Hilton are:
EFFECTIVENESS & EFFICIENCY
Efficiency and Effectiveness with which infrastructure work is effecting, but more importantly of The Hilton’s how-to organisation serves their customers to effective service. Towards disunity, lack of cross-integration of work and inconsistent behaviour of service customers’ perception will affect.
Hilton’s organizational culture, basic assumptions, values and belief system of the organization as a whole. Various elements of the organizations own culture can be. That, or can display different valuation, in Conflict with corporate culture. The Hilton’s project team could culture their own informal group who may not fully joint with corporate culture.
NATIONAL (CORPORATE) CULTURE
The Hilton is a big organizational company so its corporate culture, basic assumptions, values and belief system formally includes the head of an organization coalition. Often this means senior officials and enterprise owners, but staff members (co-operatives) may include Trade unions and government. Basic beliefs, values and beliefs of the founder of an organization can affect an organization’s major coalition organization long after they have left.
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT FOR HILTON GROUP PLC FOR MOTIVATION: The Hilton’s Organization development research we could considered Kurt Lewin’s 3-step model. In this model demonstrated the most effective group norms and consensus decision-making to separate and organisational behaviour. This model it can be also research programmes included load indicators and the effect of group discussion and commitment in changing eating habits.
The process of change comprises of three stages:
· Unfreezing: create the initial motivation to change by convincing staff of the undesirability of the present situation; · The change process itself: mainly concerned with identifying what the new behaviour or norm should be. This stage will often involve new information being communicated and new attitudes, culture and concepts being adopted. · Refreezing or stabilising the change: implying reinforcement of the new pattern of work or behaviour by rewards (praise etc.). Develop the belief that the changed situation satisfies organisational and personal values. 1. We can show steps include in plan revolution processes.As a cyclical process of an Organisation Development research change is shown. Round circle working with clients and representative of change recruited by the work begins with a series of planning.
A primary diagnosis of the main component of this stage, data collection, outcome feedback, and added combine action plan. In the language of systems article, this step contribution, the customer systems as yet unknown is alert of the problems, shows the effect of changes required to help output, maybe the problem-solving and agency process is with the ordinary stock. 2. The second stage of (OD) action research plan, or changes, phase. Related to the studying process at this stage and planning and implementing behaviour change in client organizations, add the action.
The category of reply shown by a response Loop will be taken and plan to change the past with the actual of well recognize the impact of changing customer systems will transport to educational activities 3. The third part of the (OD) research production, or outcome, stage. The platform includes real change in reaction. If any resulting from corrective action ratio taken the next second stage. Data collected from customer systems again can be set so that progress and modification may be needed in the learning activities.
LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION THEORY FOR THE HILTON
Hilton’s build a two dimensional factor build on employee behaviour of his work. They can be also added in there company policy, supervision, salary and working condition rather than motivators. As per his theory the absence of the factor creates a job satisfaction but their present doesn’t match there. In that case Hilton Group also find out a five motivate element were strong job satisfaction.
5. Work it self
Critically evaluate theories relating to managing cultural diversity for Hilton group of hotels? Hilton International Group is a leading global hotel brand and the company, with an expanding portfolio of hotels, mainly Hilton Brand, Conrad and Vernon Hotels. The company operates 380 hotels worldwide and is represented in 66 countries. Its 80,000 strong workforce looks after an average of 8 million guests every year. The quality of the Hilton brand is such that customer service and operational excellence is higher than in most industries.
Senior executives at Hilton believe that the training and ongoing development of its employees is critical in order for the business to stay ahead in a competitive global marketplace. Consequently, learning is a major part of the company’s strategy. Hilton International is totally decentralised; splitting into countries, cities and individual hotels.
Theories for managing cultural diversity at Hilton group of hotels
INTERNATIONAL HRM STRATEGY
1.Recruitment: The recruitment strategy, must determine the nature of the IMD programme and the type of international manager development. Three different approaches available to managing and staffing companies’ subsidiaries include an ethnocentric approach, which will tend to use expatriates in key positions abroad; a polycentric approach with the use of local nationals wherever possible, and a geocentric approach with a mixture of nationals, expatriates and third country nationals. In the ethnocentric approach, the cultural values and business practices of the home country are predominant. All the standards for evaluation and control are determined centrally from the headquarters in the form of orders and commands. The polycentric approach is in direct opposition. The subsidiaries in each country are developed locally under the supervision of local managers. It results in little communication between headquarters and subsidiary.
The geocentric approach, organisations try to combine the best from headquarters and the subsidiaries to develop consistent worldwide practices. In regard to Hilton Hotel Group, it tries to involve more integration between centre and subsidiaries to ensure close co-operation between the different parts of the chain, and implement both universal and local standards for evaluation and control. The company that applies the global integrated business strategy manages and staffs employees on a global basis. For example, Hilton has for many years attempted to recruit and develop a group of international managers from diverse countries. These people constitute a mobile base of managers who are used in a variety of facilities as the need arises.
2. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
Considering the international nature of the hotel industry it becomes clear that different development needs exist believes that there are two-tiered approaches to international development. At a tactical level, companies such as Hilton, have to ensure that managers are able to operate in different locations while developing sensitivity to the local environment. The second one is based on a strategic level, where managers are required to think globally and view the organisation in an international context.
Hilton has introduced a large number of HRM strategies which focus on selecting, training and developing global managers who understand the worldwide ramifications of their business and can operate throughout the world. The loss of employees is among the biggest issues facing modern-day corporations. Hilton Hotel Group is one of the examples, where managers work with closely with employees to detail their career paths. Hilton continues to demonstrate that building a satisfied and valuable workforce is not a quick-fix procedure, but an integrated approach that permeates through every aspect of the organisation. Hilton tries to recognise the importance of employee approaches and heavily invests in it.
3. RECOGNITIONS AND REWARDS AT HILTON
An organisation reward strategy is perhaps the area which, for employees, provides the greatest bridge between rhetoric and reality. It is not only an essential tool in terms of retention, motivation and recruitment – it is an opportunity to demonstrate the culture of the organisation in a way that has real impact on employees. Hilton International aims to make everyone feel valued within their working environment. Its objectives are to maintain high standards in human resources management and to create a business culture in which everyone can grow and develop their careers. To support this commitment, Hilton University has been launched worldwide, covering a range of skills for the hotel industry, from operational and technical to finance and general management.
LABOUR MARKET: Labour supply and retention remain areas of managerial concern in the UK and international hospitality industry. High Turnover Issue: It is generally considered that turnover in the industry should be attributed to the essentially transient nature of part of the workforce, namely students, young mothers and young people as a whole, as well as to the general difficulty in retaining staff. The ageism issue is difficult to identify, and therefore difficult to eliminate in an employment context.
Nowadays the industry employs mostly young people, and indeed for many of them provides the point of entry into the world of work. Older recruits often have considerable experience in the industry and may have a lower absentee rate. (Nord and Durand, 1978; Lucas, 1995) In Hilton, where employees are recognised as valued assets and receive the training needed to assume greater responsibility, and where their opinion is sought with regard to operational changes, turnover rates are lower.
Impact of new technology: Technology which facilitates on-line hotels will have an impact in terms of staff reductions on the front-desk hotel staff, which used to perform those functions. This technology also calls for a different range of skills from employees. Training will therefore become a continuous need and the remaining jobs will require greater skills. Compare and contrast the style of leadership and appropriate motivation technique across different culture in Hilton group? The Hilton Group Plc also focuses the leadership styles depend on leader’s behaviour, result of philosophy, personality and experience of the leader.
Here Kurt Lewin and some other philosopher declare some different types of leadership so we can be also think on this way to make a better organising management. Bureaucratic, Autocratic, Democratic or Laissez-Faire (Free Reign) Leadership. 1. Bureaucratic: – A leader who uses fear and threats to get jobs done. As a leader, an authoritarian leadership style which uses the leader with all this style also makes the same decision. 2. Autocratic: – Under the authoritarian leadership style, as a leader in federal decision-making powers is shown that leaders are rulers. 3. Democratic: – Democratic leadership style, decision as a favour done by group, as leader, after consulting group offers instruction. Democratic leader of the group members because they unilaterally decided by them in consultation with the Partnership are not born with as dictator.
4. Laissez-Faire (Free Reign):- A free rein leader does not lead, but the group showed itself as a complete leaf, a leader allows subordinates more and more freedom. They are given generous in deciding its policies and practices. Free rein leadership style autocratic style is considered better. Organizations around the world has been recognizing the cultural diversity within organization is not a contradict aspect, rather can assist an organizational pursue for glory. However it is not an easy task to manage employees with different cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless there are so many policy guidelines that can make a piece of work simplified.
On a wide perspective, cultural diversity can be manage through communicating (creating awareness among all employees about diverse values of peers through communication), cultivating (facilitating acknowledgement, support and encouragement of any employee’ success by all other workers), and capitalizing (linking diversity to every business touch on and strategy such as succession planning, restructuring, employee motivation, performance management and review, and pay back systems) strategies Cross-cultural psychology at Hilton attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other.
Along these lines, cross-cultural leadership has developed as a way to understand leaders who work in the newly globalized market. Today’s international organizations require leaders who can adjust to different environments quickly and work with partners and employees. Implicit Leadership Theory: The Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT) asserts that people’s underlying assumptions, stereotypes, beliefs and schemas influence the extent to which they view someone as a good leader. Since people across cultures tend to hold different implicit beliefs, schemas and stereotypes, it would seem only natural that their underlying beliefs in what makes a good leader differ across cultures.
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions : One of the most prominent and influential studies to date regarding leadership in a globalized world is the Hofstede dimensions of culture. The study reveals similarities as well as differences across cultures and emphasizes the need to be open-minded to understand the differences in other cultures. Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) utilize five dimensions of culture to compare cultures to give leaders an understanding of how to adjust their leadership styles accordingly. These dimensions include Individualism/Collectivism, Feminine/Masculine, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Long Term/ Short Term orientation.
Leadership Styles Across Cultures: Leadership is a universal phenomenon That is, wherever there are people, there are leaders. The question here is not whether leadership exists across cultures, but do various leadership styles (paternalistic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional leadership) translate across cultures Paternalistic Leadership
Paternalistic leadership “combines strong discipline and authority with fatherly benevolence and moral integrity couched in a ‘personality’ atmosphere” Paternalistic leadership is composed of three main elements: authoritarianism, benevolence, and moral leadership. At its roots, paternalistic leadership refers to a hierarchical relationship in which the leader takes personal interest in the workers’ professional and personal lives in a manner resembling a parent, and expects loyalty and respect in return .
A great deal of research has been conducted on the prevalence of this leadership style in non-Western business organizations, indicating the prevalence of paternalistic leadership in countries like China and Taiwan. However, considerably less research has been done on whether paternalistic leadership exists in Western cultures. Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of attention placed on paternalistic leadership in non-Western cultures. Based on recent cross-cultural studies, paternalistic leadership seems to be more apparent across cultures than previously believed. Further research is needed to explore how prevalent it is, and how individual characteristics may play a role in where paternalistic leadership is found.
Transformational & Transactional Leadership
In addition to paternalistic leadership, other well-known leadership styles include transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Transformational leadership is loosely defined as a charismatic leadership style that rallies subordinates around a common goal with enthusiasm and support. Transactional leadership is characterized by a give and take relationship using rewards as an incentive. These concepts were introduced by Bass (1985) and have been updated and studied throughout the years, claiming the transferability of these types of leadership styles across cultures. With the help of cross-cultural business surroundings comes a need for people to be aware of how culture influences the organization. The cause of event is the leadership challenge is very hard to achieve.
The Leaders of new era should have the ability to managing people of different cultures; the leaders must have the ability to listen every one and should understand the actual meaning of diversified cultural co-workers. This is the main and the core challenge which a leader faces; when people perceive the world, communicate and view their leaders in different ways, the leader’s ears may be ringing with misunderstood messages. Behavioural Theories: Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states.
3. Contingency or Situational Theories:
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.
4. Participative Theories:
Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.
Theories of Motivation
1. Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory”:
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. As per his theory this needs are :
(i) Physiological needs :
(ii) Security or Safety needs :
(iii) Social needs :
(iv) Esteem needs :
(v) Need for self-actualization :
2 “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :
McGregor states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y.
3 Mayo Theory of Motivation
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work. 4 Herzberg Theory of Motivation Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygiene factors)
Critical Analysis of leadership Theories
The Trait Approach came from the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders. It was believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions. This approach was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions. The problem with the trait approach lies in the fact that almost as many traits as studies undertaken were identified. After several years of such research, it became apparent that no consistent traits could be identified. Although some traits were found in a considerable number of studies, the results were generally inconclusive.
Some leaders might have possessed certain traits but the absence of them did not necessarily mean that the person was not a leader. 2 The Behavioural Theory: The results of the trait studies were in concluded. Traits, amongst other things, were hard to measure. How, for example, do we measure traits such as honesty, integrity, loyalty, or diligence, while in this theory of leadership its very clear that the behaviour of the leader is very important, its doesn’t matter how intelligent he is or how educated the leader is. its the game of behaviour and game of personality. This style of leadership, we can see mostly in south Asian countries or third world countries. And in my view this kind of leadership is based on idealism.
3 The Contingency Theory
The behavioural theories can help the managers at Hilton Group for developing specific leadership behaviours they give them little guidance as to what constitutes effective leadership in different scenarios. Indeed, I feel that no one leadership style is right for every manager under all circumstances. Instead, contingency-situational theories were developed to indicate that the style to be used is contingent upon such factors as the situation, the people, the task, the organization, and other environmental variables.
4 Participative Theories
Participative theory may helps more to the managers rather than other above theories. The positive thing about participative style of leadership is distribute the power among the team members. That’s means the leader transfer and share the power among all the team members. This will help to make better decisions, because every team member will participate in the decision making process. In this case every team member has the importance and that thing motivate and enhance their confidence level. On the other hand if the leader transfer the power to that member who I not capable of doing assigned work than that thing can impact negatively. Maslow’s theory is not easy to test because of the nature of the subject involved, the difficulty with defining the plan or intention and only cover partly, for example between love and esteem, or physical and safety needs. Deprivation: The person who is not available in all of the basic needs containing as part of the whole being considered physiological, safety, love, and esteem would likely feel a powerful desire for food above all else.
In the Maslow as a witness explain the example of a persisting for a long time or constantly recurring hungry person for whom no other interests exist beyond food: “he dreams food, he remembers food, he thinks about food, he emotes only about food, he conscious of only food and he wants only food”. Maslow suggested that people who experienced extreme emotional and/or physical the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society early in life may be permanently destroyed in terms of the social, esteem, and fulfilment of one’s talents and potentialities needs. Individuals develop coping mechanisms in the face of ongoing stressors: in the context of chronic deprivation of basic needs, the person may break the connection from the higher needs, since they may seem causes despair out of reach.
Adults who were process of moving up the hierarchy of needs as the lower needs become satisfied criticized theories that rest on especially significant details of human behaviour under remarkable conditions, Care taken to avoid danger or mistakes against unknown situation from human behaviour in emergencies to human behaviour in more typical situations. Maslow stated a fact or belief confidently and forcefully that those who attempt to measure the goals of humankind based on not involving anyone “behaviour during extreme physiological deprivation is used to emphasize being blind to many things .it is important to observe human behaviour under more normal circumstances in order to develop a generally applicable theory that is not distorted by reaching a high environments.
Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of human needs make an effort to achieve an account for the experience of the persisting for a long time or constantly recurring hungry and the chronically satisfied within the same model, but the model’s structure does not allow enough flexibility to account for the extremes of satisfaction and the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society as well as the normal experiences of the general population.
“Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor
This lasting legacy of McGregor’s The Human Side of Enterprise and his Theory X and Y is that it shows how far management thinking has come. Objecting to the dominance of Theory X in the workplace of the time, McGregor noted that ‘if there is a single assumption that pervades conventional organization theory, it is that authority is the central, indispensable means of managerial control.’ McGregor then put forward an available as another possibility or choice the art of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other. Theory Y was based on the opposite set of assumptions, namely that people need not only to work but want to work.
Under Theory Y, the worker finds that mental and physical effort at work are as natural as it is not working or occupied; that belonging to control and threats are not the single means of control in a company; that the average human learns not only to accept but to attempt to find responsibility; and that most of us have a fully occupying the available area to display a high degree of forming new ideas, and original in sorting out problems. It is true that neither of McGregor’s two polar opposites are achievable in any organization. Even the most swollen and distended or congested corporate giant has human spirit remain hidden within it, while the most off-beam creative firms require an organization a set of ideas. McGregor recognized this fact and was busy by the terms of a will a hybrid of organizational human try hard to achieve something, theory Z, when he died.
Mayo Theory of Motivation
Mayo theory of motivation has described that treating with people as human is important. The manager Should give them self respect and importance, this is an effective tool for the people who work in an organization. But the negative aspect of this theory is that mayo has forgotten about the basic needs and one of them is money. Only the self respect is not enough other things also matters. In my opinion the mayo theory of motivation is competitively less effective that other theories of motivation.
Herzberg Theory of Motivation
Herzberg has discussed two factor here in my view Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction, for example the company polices really matters. Are they helpful to the workers, how the administration is working, what leadership style they have? If both company policy and administration is worker friendly than it really helpful to the workers and motivates them, there few other factors which have the importance is supervision, interpersonal relationship, working conditions, salary, status and security. these are the factors if they are shown preferably in the company policies that can really motivate the employees. While in Motivation Factor – work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth, job enrichment and leads to superior performance & effort Motivation-Hygiene Combinations
(Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
Benefits of Cultural Diversity
For producing desired results multi-cultural managed companies have cost effective competitive advantage. It helps in boosting minority friendly reputation among progressive employees. Diverse cultural corporations help to get the best customers which have a variety of people. Diverse group of employees are seems to be more creative and efficient in problem solving as compared to similar group. Ability to manage cultural diversity increases adaptability and flexibility of an organization to environmental changes. Globalization is the increased interdependence (economic, social, technical, and political) between nations. People are becoming more interconnected. At Hilton there is more international trade, cultural exchange, and use of worldwide telecommunication systems.
In the last 10 years, our schools, organizations, and communities have become far more global than in the past. Increased globalization has created many challenges, including the need to design effective multinational organizations, to identify and select appropriate leaders for these entities, and to manage organizations with culturally diverse employees. Motivation strategy at Hilton: An organisation’s rewards strategy is perhaps the area which, for employees, provides the greatest bridge between rhetoric and reality. It is not only an essential tool in terms of retention, motivation and recruitment – it is an opportunity to demonstrate the culture of the organisation in a way that has real impact on employees.
At Hilton, the acquisition of leisure group Stakis plc in March 1999 promoted a review and subsequent update of the company’s rewards program – Esprit Club. Through their “Espirit” programme, Hilton International aims to make everyone feel valued within their working environment. Its objectives are to maintain high standards in human resources management and to create a business culture in which everyone can grow and develop their careers. To support this commitment, Hilton University has been launched worldwide, covering a range of skills for the hotel industry, from operational and technical to finance and general management
The hospitality industry, being so people-centred and customer-driven, needs inspirational leadership in all its sectors. In that case The Hilton Group Plc’s Organisation culture is analytical –learning search problem and explains process adds in to the customer service systems. This data in the form of a printed report has not come quickly, but quick response into the open joint session, and client and change agent to identify specific problems and ranking co-operation, ways to discover their real reasons in preparation, and plans to compete with them in developing realistic and practical. As a Hospitality method of data assembly, Customer satisfaction, Cleanness, accuracy, measuring results and management however, as strictly followed as a rule so it could be make lots of customer ratio.
Hilton’s strategy on globalisation strongly affects the approach it takes to international human resource management. To ensure the development of managers with international experience, Hilton and other global hotel chains need to establish HRM systems as a core component of general organisation strategy and adopt a formalised approach to IMD. Whichever approach is adopted, it seems essential to plan the strategy and focus on a holistic, long-term approach rather than the individual, short-term approaches. A more centralised approach can optimise Hilton’s management as a competitive resource. The double challenges thinking puff leadership development and improve effective leadership developing practices In the Hilton Group Plc It would be greater than best of previous.
At that time we find our self carefully positive field for the future. Some of the positive trends that are the make a future both challenging and interesting for the Hilton’s employee. Hilton’s strategy on globalisation strongly affects the approach it takes to international human resource management. To ensure the development of managers with international experience, Hilton and other global hotel chains need to establish HRM systems as a core component of general organisation strategy and adopt a formalised approach to IMD. Whichever approach is adopted, it seems essential to plan the strategy and focus on a holistic, long-term approach rather than the individual, short-term approaches. A more centralised approach can optimise Hilton’s management as a competitive resource.
7. Master of Science in Hotel Administration -William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration 8. Leadership research in hospitality: a critical review- Steven Boyne 9. Organizational Behaviour: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses: By John B. Miner 10. Armstrong M., 1996, Personnel Management Practice, Kogan Page; 11. Article, 2001, Human resources development, employment and globalisation in the hotel, catering and tourism sector, International Labour Organisation, April 2, www-ilrror.cornell.edu/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmhct01/tmhctr2.htm