Cosmology, as defined by Encarta Dictionary is “the philosophical study of the nature of the universe. ” This concern with viewing the universe and its vast issues and meaning takes the mind into a mysterious spectrum. The very foundation of Cosmology began with Astronomer Edwin Hubble in 1929. He discovered that other galaxies existed in the universe and determined that these galaxies were moving away from each other at a rate that was constant with the distance between them. The farther away from Earth the galaxy was, the faster they would be traveling away from us. In theory, this also proved that universe was expanding.
This discovery assisted the profound astronomer with formulating Hubble’s Law, which directly contributed to giving astronomers the keys to discovering how old our universe is and proving that the universe is expanding. The Big Bang theory is the most notable theory about the creation of our universe, which happened more than 14 billion years ago. The process began to expand from particles released from the superior explosion and dropping temperatures. The process started as a small speck of matter and formed into a dense object as large as Earth from radiant energy and exotic particles called quarks or antiquarks.
As the temperature dropped during this process, things such as protons and neutrons began to form together creating helium nuclei over a period of a few hundred thousand years. More than two billion years after the Big Bang, galaxies began to form as gravity started to collect and mass together irregular matter forming a sponge type structure. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, forms one billion years after this mark. Star clusters form from inside a giant sphere of gas and spiral arms take shape as settling gas forms into a disk shape displaying a centered core like formation.
One example scientist conducted to prove the Big Bang Theory were scientist Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who discovered cosmic microwave radiation in 1965 from the Holmdel antenna in New Jersey. They discovered that residue left over from the Big Bang explosion was forming low-level radiation pockets throughout the universe. This discovery along with Hubble’s Law stating that galaxies were traveling away from us, builds a sturdy case in support of the big bang theory. The Milky Way galaxy is only one out of billions of galaxies floating throughout this vast space.
It is flat in shape with a central bulge spiral shaped galaxy that carries more than 100 billion stars and is 100,000 light years in diameter. According to the Cosmic Perspective, “If dark matter is indeed the most common form of massing galaxies, it must have provided most of the gravitational attraction responsible for creating the protogalactic clouds. The hydrogen and helium gas in the protogalactic clouds collapsed inward and gave birth to stars, while weakly interacting dark matter remained in the outskirts because of its inability to radiate away orbital energy.
According to this model, the luminous matter in each galaxy must still be nestled inside the larger cocoon of dark matter that initiated the galaxy’s formation, just as observational evidence seems to suggest. ” Dark energy, discovered in 1998 by a team of three Astronomers, Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess, observed exploding stars to gather numbers for data to support the expanding universe. While attempting to grasp a better understanding of supernovae’s, they stumbled across evidence that supported the universe was expanding, but at an accelerated pace.
This discovery, in an ongoing effort, changed our view of the expanding universe. Scientist do not know exactly why the universe is expanding at this rate, but dark energy seems to be forcing galaxies and large amounts of matter apart. The destiny of our universe relies on whether gravity can hold this force back from expanding rapidly. However, evidence shows that gravity is growing weaker even when matter is factored in. This proves that the rapidly expanding universe is not only increasing, but also will not stop increasing. The Theory of Everything stated by Brian Greene, is the theory to end theories.
He states, “For the first time in the history of physics we therefore have a framework with the capacity to explain every fundamental feature upon which the universe is constructed. For this reason string theory is sometimes described as possibly being the, “theory of everything” (T. O. E. ) or the “ultimate” or “final” theory. These grandiose descriptive terms are meant to signify the deepest possible theory of physics—a theory that underlies all others, one that does not require or even allow for a deeper explanatory base” (Brian Greene, Theory of Everything, October 28, 2003).
This theory projects a meaning for everything created in the universe down to the smallest particle all the way up to the largest particle, including all matter and its fundamental principles would be explained down to the deepest explanation at microscopic levels. This final theory would represent an unwavering support of rationality that would forever declare that the universe is an absolute intelligent source.