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Lab Report on Effect of Enzymes Essay

ntroduction

The enzyme catalase is present in cells in order to speed the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a toxic chemical to the human body. When hydrogen peroxide is broken down, the end products are Water (H2O) and Oxygen (O2). In this report, the reaction of catalase to hydrogen peroxide is being tested. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, concentration, and pH level on this reaction are being considered. We hypothesize that he experiments will show that Catalase speeds the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, and the oxygen will produce a larger bubbling effect in the solutions where the optimum conditions for enzymatic activity are present. These optimum conditions should be in warm temperature, high concentration, and high pH levels. First, the reaction of catalase to hydrogen peroxide is tested with no additional factors. Then, to study the effect of temperature, three ranges of temperature are introduced in the second experiment. Next, to study the effect of concentration, three different levels of catalase are studied in the third experiment. And finally, to study the effect of pH, solutions with three levels of hydrogen concentration are tested in the fourth experiment, again with hydrogen peroxide and catalase.

Methods

Experiment 1: To test the catalase-hydrogen peroxide reaction with no additional factors, we marked three test tubes to the 1 cm and 5 cm marks. Catalase was added to the 1 cm mark of test tube 1 and test tube 3, while test tube 2 was filled to the 1 cm mark with water. Hydrogen peroxide was added to the 5 cm mark in test tube 1 and test tube 2, while a sucrose solution was used to fill test tube 3. All test tubes were mixed and we waited 20 seconds for bubbling. Test tube 1 represented the experiment, while test tube 2 was the negative control for hydrogen peroxide, and test tube 3 was the negative control for the catalase. Experiment 2: To test the effect of temperature on enzyme activity, the solution created in test tube 1 of the previous experiment was recreated in three separate test tubes. Test tube 1 was placed in an ice bath. Test 2 was placed in warm water. Test tube 3 was placed in boiling water. Experiment 3: To test the effect of concentration, three separate test tubes were set of to have three different concentrations of the reactant (catalase), while the substrate was consistent across all three test tubes.

Test tube 1 was filled in the same fashion as test tube 1 in the first experiment. Test tube 2 was then filled to 2 cm with catalase and then to 7 cm with hydrogen peroxide. Test tube 3 was filled to 3 cm with catalase, and then to 8 cm with hydrogen peroxide. Experiment 4: Finally, to test the effect of pH Level on enzyme activity, three test tubes were again created. The concentration of catalase and hydrogen peroxide are again the same as in test tube one in the first experiment. However, 2 cm of water adjusted to different pH levels were added. In test tube 1, 2 cm of water with pH of 3 is added to the 1 cm of catalase and 4 cm of hydrogen peroxide. In test tube 2, 2 cm of water adjusted to the pH adjusted to 7 was added to 1 cm of catalase and 4 cm of hydrogen peroxide. In test tube 3, 2 cm of water adjusted to the pH adjusted to 11 was added to 1 cm of catalase and 4 cm of hydrogen peroxide.

Discussion
The discussion section includes your interpretation of the results and provides the answer to the research question described in the introduction. Specifically, discuss whether or not your hypotheses were supported. Also, include a comparison to previous studies, discuss the limitations of your study (briefly), and detail unexpected findings. Finally, summarize your conclusions and discuss the significance of your results in a broader context. Use the appropriate tense as described above.

References
The references section is a list of all references cited in the text. Arrange references alphabetically according to author name, not chronologically. The name of the journals containing the cited papers should be written out in full. Town/city and country names should be provided for non-journal references. Each article reference should be given as in the following example:

Alfano J.R., Collmer A. (2004) Type III secretion system effector proteins: double agents in bacterial disease and plant defence. Annual Review Phytopathology, 42, 385–414.

Books or other non-serial publications which are quoted in the references must be cited as follows:

Gage J.D., Tyler P.A. (1991) Deep-sea Biology: A Natural History of Organisms at the Deep-sea Floor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 504 pp.

Lester R.N., Hasan S.M.Z. (1991) Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena, from S. incanum, in Africa and Asia. In: Hawkes J.G., Lester R.N., Nee M., Estrada N. (Eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; London, UK: 369–387.


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