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Lab Enzymes Essay

Introduction

How does changing the surroundings of enzymes affect their reaction rate? The purpose of the experiment is to determine how different abiotic conditions affect the rate at which enzymes accelerate/cause reactions In this lab students measured the height of the foam after catalysis between catalase (enzyme) and 7 other (solutions) to determine which solution had the fastest reaction rate.. The control variable of the experiment would be the solution of only hydrogen peroxide, water, and catalase. The independent variables of the experiment were the abiotic factors such as PH level, temperature, and the amount of salt within the environment.

The dependent variable of the experiment would be the height of the foam(product) after each change in environment. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding high sodium, low sodium, and very low sodium into three individual test tubes , and measured the height of the foam then low sodium would have the highest reaction rate, this is because changes in the concentration of salt alter the electrostatic interactions between charged amino acids, so if salt is added the ability of enzymes to bind to the substrate is altered and the enzyme may or may not be able to bind to it.

If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding room temperature , boiling , and freezing cold Solutions into three individual test tubes and measured the height of the foam then freezing cold Solution would have the highest rate of reaction this is because the higher the temperature the weaker the hydrogen bond. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding acidic and basic solution into two individual test tubes and measured the height of the foam then basic would have the highest rate of reaction because the PH level also alters the electrostatic interactions doing the same as salt, when PH level is decreased the negative charge is neutralized, hydrogen bind to the unoccupied pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom of the amino groups giving them a positive charge.

Key terms

Enzyme-Biological substances(protein) that act as Catalysts and help complex reactions occur where.

Catalyst- a substrate that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing energy needed to start it.

Substrate- a biological molecule the enzymes will work on

Catalysis- When a substrate is changed

Product- A substrate after being through catalysis, and let go

Catalase- An enzyme found in most living cells that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

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Materials and Procedure

Materials- 4 ML of different pH solutions/2 ML catalase/Different salt solutions/1 ML hydrogen peroxide solution

Apparatus-8 test tubes/Test tube rack/metric ruler/Syringe

Procedures

Students will be given materials such as five test tubes, a test tube rack,and a metric ruler;student will also collect solutions premixed with 2ML of catalyse such as 6ML of different 3 salt solutions, 6ML of 3 different PH level solution, and 6ML of 3 different temperature solutions. The solutions will be placed within the 8 tubes

Next students will add 1ML of Hydrogen Peroxide to each test tube Students will observe reactions to the solutions after being mixed After a certain amount of time students will measure the amount of foam is within the test tube from where the foam starts to where it ends.

Observations

The control foam height was at 10MM at around 4min, exactly half the value of cold solution at 4min which was at about 19MM at the time; cold solution had a much faster reaction rate then the control, the boiled solution was at 0MM at 4min. The acid solution was at 0ML at 4min and the base solution was at 7MM. At 4min.The 1.5% salinity solution was at 9MM at 4min and had the highest foam height compared to the other salinity solutions such as 3MM for 1% and 5MM for 3% at 4min. Another thing I’ve noticed was that a solution was splitting from the other solutions (besides the control) of catalase + Hydrogen Peroxide + Variable.

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Data

Enzyme Reaction Rate Under Different Conditions(ML=Milliliter) Solutions | Control | Boiled | Cold | Acid | Base | 1%Salinity | 1.5%salinity | 3%salinity | Height of Foam | 18.6MM | 1.1MM | 19.4MM | 0.5MM | 5.9MM | 1.3MM | 11.3MM | 5.6MM |

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Results
A – The Control variable had the second highest reaction rate and was about 6 times larger than the Base and salinity solutions, the control was 0.8MM away from the first highest solution(Freezing cold Solution).

B- PH Conditions- The base solution had a more positive effect then the acid solution by 5.4MM.The Acid solution had the lowest reaction rate and had the most negative effects. Temperature Conditions-Compared to cold solution boiled solution had a really negative effect by 18.3MM.The Cold solution had the most positive effect. Salinity Conditions- The 1.5% Salinity solution had the most positive effects out of all of the salinity solutions. It is more than 1% by 10MM and more than 3% by 5.7MM

C-The Acid and Base solutions both were negative compared to the control. The 1%,1.5%,and 3% salinity solutions were way underneath 18.6MM so they were also negative compared to the control. The cold solution was the only positive solution throughout the entire experiment, the boiled solution remained low and had negative effects compared to the control by 12.3MM.

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Conclusion

How does changing the surroundings of enzymes affect their reaction rate? The purpose of the experiment is to determine how different abiotic conditions affect the rate at which enzymes accelerate/cause reactions. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding high sodium, low sodium, and very low sodium into three individual test tubes and measured the height of the foam then low sodium would have the highest rate of reaction, this is because changes in the concentration of salinity alter the electrostatic interactions between charged amino acids, so if salinity is added the ability of enzymes to bind to the substrate is altered and the enzyme may or may not be able to bind to it; my hypothesis was correct because the results of the experiment for the fastest reaction rate for salinity solution was 1.5% salinity solution at 11.3MM , the salinity can alter to either help or hinder the reaction rate by increasing the binding speed or by making it not possible, this is shown by 1.5% being at 11.3MM higher than both 3% at 5.6MM and 1% being at 1.3, so as a proven by those results enzymes enjoyed the mid range salinity concentration of 1.5% as to a very low or high amount of salinity.

If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding room temperature, boiling , and freezing cold Solutions into three individual test tubes , and then measured the height of the foam, freezing cold Solutions, would have the highest rate of reaction this is because the higher the temperature the weaker the hydrogen bond; my hypothesis on why the highest reaction rate would be the coldest solution was correct and was proven by the cold solution being at 19.4MM and the boiling solution being at a low 1.1MM, this shows cold solution strengthens the hydrogen bonds while boiling does the opposite by weakening it.

If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding acidic and basic solutions into two individual test tubes , and then measured the height of the foam, basic would have the highest rate of reaction because the PH level also alters the electrostatic interactions doing the same as the salinity solution , when PH level is decreased the negative charge is neutralized, hydrogen bind to the unoccupied pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom of the amino groups giving them a positive charge; my hypothesis on a higher PH level increasing reaction rate was correct, this was proven by the base solution being at 5.9MM and the acid solution being at a very low 0.5MM.

1.The enzyme functioned the best within the cold solution. The enzyme functioned the least within the acidic solution. The PH level of the cell would more basic then acidic since it would thrive within an basic environment more so then an acidic environment.

2.PH effects the enzyme by either rising in PH level which adds more positive charge and removes negative or the PH level drops which adds more negative charge and removes positive charge. Salinity effects enzymes by either increasing bonding rate or by making it so that the enzyme cannot bind to the substrate.

3.If we did not have catalase in our bodies we would all die of toxins building up within our bodies, also if catalase could not be made vital cells such as white blood cells would be harmed, catalase speed up reactions and create energy without catalase reactions within cells would be to slow and cells would die of lack of energy.

4.The condition called Diabetic Ketoacidosis breaks down protein in the absence of glucose, Protein is vital to the body it is used every where within the body and it creates enzymes another vital part of the body; a person diagnosed with this disease would die of toxins and diseases because toxins are filtered by enzymes and proteins are also necessary for the immune system.

Possible Errors

Possible errors within the experiment would be that we stopped the experiment at a random time and did not wait until the foam reached its maximum height, another possible error would be that students did not have the exact measurements of solutions required. Students ability to measure foam in milimeters using a ruler can also effect the results of the experiment.


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