Explain what is meant by PIES:
Physical- it refers to things to do with your body. It includes the development of each of your body systems and affected by inherited and genetic and lifestyle. Intellectual- it is to do with the growth of the brain and the development of your thought processes. Emotional-it is about the growth and understanding of feelings. Social- making connections with family, friends and community. Life Stage/image
Key aspects of growth and development p1 – m1(for merit explain in more detail) Conception to birth
When babies are born they are quiet helpless and dependant. To survive they have lots of reflexes: Rooting, sucking, swallowing, grasping, stepping and startle reflex. Babies develop really fast through out the first three years of their life. When they are born they have lots of physical reflexes. A reflex is an uncontroable response e.g. moving your hand away from a hot plate. Rooting Reflex is when the baby turns its head in the direction of the touch, to find the nipple of its mother’s breast to obtain food. Moro Reflex is when a baby throws out its arms and legs then pulls them back curved. Grasp Reflex is when a baby will grab an object in the hand. Walking Reflex is when a baby is held with its feet touching the ground, and then the baby will make forward movements.
Intellectual development means a complete theory about life and growth of human intelligence. We also build up communication skills which allow us to make ourselves understood and to extend relationships. Development of the mind allows us to recognise, remember, reason, know and understand things around us. Language development is also another part of it. At the age of 18 months the child should know at least six words. At the age of one they should start to name objects and two and three year olds put words into little sentences. Sensorimeter Stage: this stage is found between birth and two year old children. During this stage, knowledge about objects and the ways that they can be manipulated is acquired. Through the information about self and the world, the people in it, the baby begins to understand how one thing can cause or affect another, and begins to develop simple ideas about time and space. They have the ability to build up mental pictures of objects around them.
Preoperational Stage: children usually go through this stage between the ages of two to seven year olds. In this stage, children’s thought processes are developing, they are still considered to be far from “logical thought” in the adult sense of the world. The child’s vocabulary is also expanding and developing in this stage. They change from babies in to ‘little people’. Concrete Operational Stage: this period is found between the ages of seven to eleven year olds. In this stage, the child has the ability to develop logical thoughts about an object, if they are able to manipulate it. Formal Operational Stage: this stage begins around the age of eleven to sixteen. This stage begins to permit adolescents to reason beyond of a world of concrete logically to a world of possibilities and to operate logically on symbols and information that do not necessarily come up with a general theory of all possible factors that might affect the outcome and reduce from the specific hypotheses that might occur. They can focus on verbal assertions and evaluate their logical validity without making references to real-world circumstances.
Emotions are feelings e.g. happiness, anger, fear, frustration, jealousy and many more. When infants and children grow up, they will learn to express their feelings. They also learn how to control their feelings. 1 year olds are able to learn about the effect of their behaviour that has on care givers and can communicate their feelings through their facial expressions. 2 year olds are recognized for their tantrums as they put great effort in to their emotions. 3 year olds are more sensitive to feelings and they are willing to share toys and take turns to play with them. When babies are three months old they enjoy cuddles and activities like bath time.
When they are six months they laugh and like to be played with. When they are nine months they start getting scared of strangers and they show likes and dislikes of food. When they are 12 months old they try to get attention from their parents and they show affection to parents. They learn about the effects of their behaviour has on care givers and can express emotions. When they are 15 months old they are more adventurous and they have loads of mood swings. When they are 18 months old they are strong enough to show their emotions. At the age of two babies want everything their way and they have lots of temper tantrums. They are able to show a degree of empathy which is expressed through play. At the age of three they are more sensitive and willing to share toys and take turns playing.
Social development is like emotional development. Relationships with the peers become more important as the child gets older. Young children form friendship and tend to show preferences to particular people. When infants start nursery they have an opportunity to spend time with other infants. Language skills are also important in the development of relations, as children develop they can express their feelings in words. There are other social developments like:
Solitary play which normally occurs during infancy when the infants will play by themselves. Parallel play is when the children will play next to each other, but not together. Co-operative play is when children play together.
Pretend play is that allows the child to learn about their word.
The physical development begins to start when the child grows older. They start to lose their body shape and grow into a little adult. The fast rate in infancy begins to slow down in childhood. The child can develop their balance and become good at running, climbing, jumping and many more. Growth continues to be really fast but not as fast as infancy. Gross Motor Skills: large muscle and body control and coordination development of skills like head control, rolling, standing and walking movements primarily require the larger, more proximal muscle groups. Fine Motor Skills: coordination of small muscle movements which occur in the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes. In use of motor skills of hands and fingers.
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Tying shoe laces
Making and decorating a cake
Building a brick tower
Playing a musical instrument
Throwing a ball
Gross Motor Skills: large muscle and body control, development of skills like head control, rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking movements primarily require the large, more proximal muscle groups. Fine Motor Skills: the coordination of small muscle movements which occur in the fingers, usually coordination with the eyes. To motor the skills of the hand and the fingers. At the same time as the child’s intellectual development grows, the child can do difficult activities, such as: Reading, writing their name, learning the rules of a game and many more. They begin to learn between right and wrong:
They have interest in reading and writing.
Progress through this stage, they become fluent in language and may develop a good vocabulary. Become less ego centric (meaning: self- centred, selfish, basically it’s always me, I and etc.) Moral develop (meaning: many parents want to raise their children, to be good of moral values. Morality is a critical part of human development, moral means good, honest and all them words you can describe a well- mannered child.) At the age of three, children have attained a vocabulary of 1,000 words, they know the concepts of big and little and they can count to 5 or more. They know their first name and surname and they can answer simple questions. At the age of 4 they know at least double of words they knew before. They can identify colours and count till atleast 10 or more than that. At the age of five, they start to ask too many questions like what happened, what they are doing and many more.
Six to eight year olds develop their ability to understand perspectives or wishes of others and are able to think in reasonable ways. At the age of reading to do more complex tasks like writing, reading and performing mathematics. Pre-operational: when a child wants to say something and he or she doesn’t know how to say it, so they are learning the language and they are learning by listening and looking around them. Concrete Operational: in this time, the child gains a better understanding of mental operations. The child begins thinking logically about concrete events, but has difficulty understanding abstract concepts. Concept Conservation: refers to a ability in logical thinking according to the psychologist Jean Piaget who developed four stages in cognitive development.
Children develop through this period when they start to release the bonds with their main carers although they still need their support. They begin to be more independent and start to develop a sense of ‘self’. Emotional responses are learned from our most important caregivers. They learn to be in control in their emotional responses and to decide conflict and care givers them when this occurs while trying to understand the temper tantrums of frustration that do occur. They begin to show signs of compassion and empathy and again, carers need to give them encouragement. In this stage the child develops the ability to talk about their feelings.
Social development in children is simply clear as a child’s interaction with others. In this stage, the child depends on her/ his parents. The child’s interaction is mainly limited to these people. The child begins interacting with other kids and adults. A child stays a lot upon love, safety and care provided by their parents and caregivers. The child finally leans to pass on love and care and shows signs of kind-hearted behaviour.
Young children like to explore and play wide range of toys by themselves. They also like games of imagination and make-believe. Parallel Play
Toddlers will play alongside others and will even watch what they do but do not play together. Simple Co-Operative
Children join in many different activities with others and learn to share and take turns. Complex Co- Operative
5 years onwards
Children make up complex games with others, organising themselves and making up their own rules.
Puberty is a period in adolescence where the body develops and matures sexually. This is the stage when teenagers move from childhood to adulthood. At this time they have lots of physical changes which include puberty. During puberty, chemicals in the body that are called hormones. In physical development girls and boys begin to change and look different as they grow into young women and men.
Grows body hair
Skin and hair change
They become taller
Hips becomes rounded
Grows body hair
Penis and testicles develop
Skin and hair change
They become taller
This stage is about the structure of development they become abstract, logically organized system of adult intelligence. When it is faced with it creates more complex problems. They are moving out of concrete intellectual stage, into operational. These are the following changes that happen in adolescence: Arguing skills improve
The ability to apply concepts to precise examples
Learns to reason though problems even in the absence of concrete events or examples Begins to independently differentiate right from wrong and develops a conscience They may challenge the statement and solutions presented by adults, and many more There are two major characteristics of formal operational period. The first one is “hypothetic- deductive reasoning”. When it is faces with a problem, adolescents come up with a general theory of possible factors that might affect the outcome and deduce from specific hypothese that might occur. The second important characteristic of this stage is that it is ‘propositional’ in nature. They can focus on spoken statements and estimate their reasonable strength without making reference to the real- world’s situations.
This is an important period of adult personality. Teenagers develop an individual identify and emotional intelligence. Teenagers would rather spend time with friends than with family, they also would like to spend time by yourself in your bedroom or somewhere on their own. Teenagers don’t get on well with their parents as this is the time teenagers want their freedom and independence and this can cause tension and arguments, but these feelings will not last forever and soon they will be able to control their emotions as they get older. Teenagers have a hard time expressing emotions. Teenage boys don’t think about emotional ease of use like girls may do. All teenagers get very moody on small things and they get very emotional on small things. They have lack of self-confident and self-esteem and this could be a problem at this age. Teenagers also start to speak slang language. There are more negative things about teenagers than positive because of the changes that occur for example: smokings, alcohol, cause anti-social behaviour.
Most parents cannot control their teenage children. During this hormones can get out of balance easily and can lead to mood swings and violent behaviour. As teenager they become fewer dependants on family for emotional support, and turn to friends and get influenced by their peer group. This is a negative effect on teenagers because they get put under peer pressure, you get put into situations that are uncomfortable and that you don’t want to get caught in to. When girls are on their periods they often get very stressed out and they might have mood swings.
As teenagers gain independence, they spend more time with friends. This permits them to practise social skills. Some adolescent’s factors such as living in poverty, living in a dysfunctional family makes this period more difficult. Teenagers turn more to their peers they often struggle because they want to be liked. Peer pressure can present difficulties as it can challenge many ideas learned from families. Often a period during which issues as experimenting with alcohol, sexual orientation and attitudes towards education.
People in their twenties and thirties are usually at the peak of their physical development. They are fully mature at this stage. Athletes perform their best in their twenties and to think about retiring after this. Good exercise system and healthy lifestyle can help to extend many decide to start to develop their fitness after this age. From the age of 30 the physical development starts and they begin to notice a lot of changes. They are:
Wrinkling of skin
Greying and thinning hair
Hearing and sight decline
Bones lose calcium
Circulatory system not as efficient
The menopause for women over 50.
Some people have trouble agreeing with these changes.
Intellectual development doesn’t stop after the age of 18. Getting a job involves new skills. When a person leaves home and living independently also needs lots of skills. In the skills, it includes, managing the house, the budget and other things to do with the house hold. Raising children is also new skills. As adults age they react more slowly and find it more difficult to remember things under pressure. To balance this they have learned from experience and are better at problem solving and making decisions. This compensates for any decline in intellectual ability over this life stage. They continue to develop problem- solving and decision- making skills. Some adults return to formal education if situations have prevented them from achieving all this when they are younger. Intellectual development is as important as physical development. It includes creativity, general knowledge and common sense.
When we leave home and we can be independent and self reliant on ourselves.
Young adults often make sacrifices, such as a lower standard of living, fro the opportunity to leave home. This allows them a new level of freedom and self- confidence. Most young adults move back home after a time away. Career development has a major impact on emotional changes in adulthood. They leave their parents home and become financially independent. Men are more likely to put a heavy investment into these goals, although women are more often to split between family and career development. These savings, tends to effect emotional development and high self-esteem, particularly in men.
In new types of relationships, they may have a partner or get married, this means they are making decisions, accepting responsibilities and sharing them. Relationships with parents may start to change. Young adults start to relate to their parents more as equal. Their parents start to realise that their children now may take responsibility for themselves.
Then they start a job that has a lot of developing working relationships. Formal relationships like those at work where they have rules that have to be followed and informal relationships like friends, causal and social relationships. Old Age
At old age they start to have lots of physical developments like: Skin wrinkles because of the loss of elasticity.
Hair thins and goes grey; men often have hair loss. Bones are more fragile as thinning makes them lighter and more brittle, especially in women. Body organs are less efficient, including the heart, lungs, kidney and liver. Sights get worse as the eye’s lens stiffens and is less able to focus on close objects, making reading more difficult. The retina becomes less sensitive to light, so an older person may need a brighter light.
Hearing get worse.
Mobility, may be affected as joint stiffen.
Sense of taste and smell is reduced.
Older people are less sensitive to cold, making them more at risk of hypothermia. Balance becomes poor and fall more likely.
They have difficulty remembering things, their reaction time are also slower.Old age people are more experience and more experienced then younger people, they always make better decisions. They are some old people that are puzzled to handle their own relationships. Confusion is quite different from dementia. Dementia is when brain cells stop working and this is everlasting. Confusion is only for some time and passes when a person is less confused.
With all aspects of development in older age there are both positive and negative aspects to emotional development. In many societies the knowledge and understanding of old age is respected so those persons they that they are making a contribution to their communities. If this not the case it can make people feel that they just a burden. Many older people are pleased to have more free time and are able to spend their retirement visiting family and friends and having time with their hobbies. Older people have come in terms with their lives and have a sense of satisfaction with that they have achieved.
This is a time of great social change for some people. The official age of retirement is 65 for men. As soon as men have retired then women will retire at the same age. As the lifespan increase, people become increasingly active in later life, they will spend a massive part of their lives in retirement, only if the retirement age has increased. Some old age people miss contact with their workmates at regular bases, other old people like having time to spend on their hobbies and interests
The old age people’s children will probably be adults, they will be living their own lives. The old person may feel as they are not needed any more. They have the pleasures of grandchildren, without being responsible. They may endure the deaths of their close friends, partners and relatives.
*stages of pregnancy poster