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Justice in Plato Cicero and Aristotle Essay

Cicero said that “justice is a habit of the soul, observed in the common interest, which gives every man his due. ” According to that, justice, unlike other virtues (be it liberty, piety, respect or whatever), comprises only the inter-individual relations . Consequently, justice pursues both individual development and social good. Justice as a universal virtue which encompasses other virtues, is above the law. It requires not doing any harm to anyone and “using common things as common, private possessions as one’s own. ” .

In Cicero, justice requires us to treat adversaries with respect and honesty, There is a limit to vengeance and punishment. In general, Ciceronian duties of justice involve an idea of respect for humanity, of treating a human being like an end rather than a means. Both Plato and Aristotle agree that justice exists in an objective sense: that is, it dictates a belief that the good life should be provided for all individuals no matter how high or low their social status Plato sees the justice and law as what sets the guidelines for societal behavior.

Aristotle puts emphasis on the institution of the polis Both viewed justice as the harmonious interaction of people in a society. Plato defines justice in terms of two types, group and individual. Group justice is a type of political justice and Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body Plato’s ideal of political justice relies on the principle of specialization. Plato suggests that justice can be achieved largely (if not purely) by the dominance of reason, while Aristotle emphasizes habitual action

harmonious relation among the parts of the soul he calls reason, spirit and appetite This harmonious condition within the soul of the just agent is the necessary and sufficient condition for Platonic justic Aristotle also believes that the just agent must be rational. What is justice? for many centuries a lot of philosophers have formulated the same question, giving us in the 21 century a complex idea of what justice is. in this text it will be analyzed and compared three different points of view. Plato defines justice in terms of two types, group and individual.

Group justice is a type of political justice; He identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. For him, the ideal of political justice relies on the principle of specialization, as each person need to work and to live in what they were made to live but, to be more specific, for Plato justice is in our body and it is the most important virtue than a human can have. However Aristotle thinks about a concept of justice based on the reason of giving everyone what they deserve. He makes emphasis in the institution of the polis, the law.

He thinks that justice can be achieve only if the person is rational and it control their own instincts . Also justice needs to be controlled by the law because human beings act according to their own benefit. Both Plato and Aristotle agree that justice exists in an objective sense: that is, it dictates a belief that the good life should be provided for all individuals no matter how high or low their social status. Cicero said that “justice is a habit of the soul, observed in the common interest, which gives every man his due.

” According to that, justice, unlike other virtues, comprise only the inter-individual relations. Consequently, justice pursues both individual development and social good. Justice as a universal virtue which encompasses other virtues is above the law. It requires not doing any harm to anyone. In Cicero, justice requires us to treat adversaries with respect and honesty, There is a limit to vengeance and punishment. In general, Ciceronian duties of justice involve an idea of respect for humanity, of treating a human being like an end rather than a means.


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