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John Locke Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Ancient Political Philosophy

What is Philosophy? The Central Questions of Philosophy – Political Philosophy • Value – Ethics (Good, Evil, Right, Wrong, Justice) • Political Philosophy – Aesthetics (Beauty) • Reality – Metaphysics (Cosmology, Ontology) • Knowledge – Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge) PHI 7100 History of Philosophy: The Classical Philosophers ©2013 Richard Legum – all rights reserved 1 What is Philosophy? Political Philosophy Some central questions of Political Philosophy: • What ought the relationship between a person and society (government) be? • What does society owe its citizens? – Safety (Protection)? Education? Health Care? A Job? • What do the citizens owe society? – Pay taxes? All their possessions? Serve in the military? • What is the just form of government? PHI 7100…

The Philosopher of Freedom and Empiricism

John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was a British Philosopher, Oxford scholar, medical researcher and physician, political operative, and economist. Alexander Popham, his father’s commander, helped him to gain an excellent education. It was 1964 when Locke started to study in Westminster School in London. John Locke had become the King’s scholar. The King’s scholar was group of intelligent boys who has the privilege to live in the school and to receive an allowance for two to three years before standing for election. After studying in Westminster school, he went to Christ Church in Oxford at the age of twenty. His years in college were devoted in taking logic and metaphysics and the classical languages. It was…

Why did John Locke believe it was irrational to attempt to force someone to become a Christian against their will?

17th century philosopher John Locke wrote ‘A Letter Concerning Toleration’ (Locke 1685) IN A TIME WHEN RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE AMONG DIFFERENT CHRISTIAN FAITHS WAS ENDEMIC THROUGHOUT EUROPE. WE WILL BE EXAMINING AND OUTLINING EXTRACTS FROM THIS LETTER TO ASCERTAIN WHY ATTEMPTING TO USE FORCE ON SOMEONE TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN AGAINST THEIR WILL, IS IRRATIONAL:- ‘The care of each man’s soul and of the things of heaven … is left entirely too every man’s self’ (ibid. p. 44). Locke wrote. By this he means that each man is responsible for their own salvation, and no other person is or could be saviour of another mans soul in an absolute sense, and that it is a matter of individual conscience not what…

Locke, Hobbes, Mill, Thoreau

John Locke explains the state of nature as a state of equality in which no one has power over another, and all are free to do as they please. He notes, however, that this liberty does not equal license to abuse others, and that natural law exists even in the state of nature. Each individual in the state of nature has the power to execute natural laws, which are universal. I believe that Locke is correct in his analysis of the state of nature however; Locke? s theory includes many assumptions. First is the assumption of a system of morality, the natural law derives from a theory of justice, a set of rights. No one would have any “rights” at…

Mill Locke on Liberty

Through out history, many philosophers have discussed the rights of mankind such as existence, liberty and especially property. In the work “The Second Treatise of Civil Government” written by John Locke, mankind’s natural rights are critically examined one by one. This essay aims to discuss whether John Stuart Mill’s harm principle that he mentions in “On Liberty” can be exercised while not violating the natural rights of mankind or not. First of all, in order to find out the consistency of Mill’s harm principle with Locke’s natural rights, briefly one should examine Locke’s definitions of state of nature and state of war. For Locke, when men live together reasonably and have right to judge each other, without a common authority…

Political philosophy

An English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence. Locke’s theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau and Kant. Locke was the…

Political philosophy

1)How does an agent reason about Lock’s options in a single-play dilemma? In the state of nature, there are four preferences. The first preference is to attack and not be attacked. The second preference is to not attack and not be attacked. The third preference is to Attack and be attacked. The fourth preference is to not attack and be attacked. 2)Was Bramhall justified in calling Hobbes’ Leviathan a “rebel’s catechism”? Yes. According to Bramhall, if everyone where to decide when to obey the sovereign and when to disobey the sovereign, then we would let ourselves be ruled over at our own pleasure. If at anytime we felt it was inconvenient to be ruled over because we felt threatened, then…

Political philosophy

The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. ?Pactum Unionis? ; and 2. ?Pactum Subjectionis?. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their…

John Locke and the Un-Equal Distribution of Wealth

It is stated by John Locke that in the state of nature no man may take more then he can consume. “? make use of any advantage of life before it spoils? whatever is beyond this is more than his share and belongs to others. Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy. (Locke 14)” Locke then goes on to say, “God gave the world to man ? for their benefit and the greatest conveniences of life they were capable to draw from it, it cannot be supposed he meant it should always remain common and uncultivated. He gave it to the use of the industrious and rational- and labor was to be his title? (Lock 15)”…

Isaac Newton Is Better Than John Locke

In all my life I have discovered many things. My discoveries have allowed us to make more new discoveries. But a problem I think of is what the world would be like if I never existed. To start things off one important discovery I made was modern physics. If I was never to make the discoveries in optics, motion, and mathematics modern physics wouldn’t of existed which means that scientist wouldn’t have never known that every object in the universe has a force that attracts each other. Something else the world would have never found would be my laws of motion. The laws of motion gave people a better understanding regarding movement which helps people today in space travel and…

How John Locke Inspired Maria Montessori

Childhood John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, a village in the English country of Somerset. He was baptized the same day. Soon after his birth, the family moved to the market town of Pensford, about seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in an old fashioned stone farmhouse . His father was a county lawyer to the Justices of the Peace and his mother was a simple tanners daughter. Both his parents were Puritans and as such, Locke was raised that way. His early life was spent at home in the country, where he was taught by his father; this explains why he favored the tutorial form of education. Early Adulthood In 1647, John…

Critical Analyis of John Locke, Hegel, and and John Stuart Mill

Question 1:How does Locke prove that human beings have a natural right to private property? Answer (Book II chap V section 27): Humans have the right to private property because they are using their own labor in conjunction to take property from the state of nature and thus making it his own. By mixing his labor or his hands, which is an extent of himself, he is relating that property to him and no one else. When every we pour water into a glass, by using labor and our hands, we have the sole entitlement to the water. Question 2:How does human nature limit this right to property? Answer (Book II chap V section 31-32) Man has the right to…

The Social Contract Theory of John Locke

John Locke was born in Wrington , Somerset , England on August 29 1704 to John Locke and Agnes Keene , who were both Puritans (Uzgalis 2001 , Wikipedia 2006 , Microsoft Encarta 2006 . His father , after whom he was named , served as captain of cavalry for the Parliamentarian forces in the early part of the English Civil War . His family later moved to Pensford and Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton . He attended the Westminster School in London in 1647 under Alexander Popham , a member of Parliament and his father ‘s former commander. Then he was admitted at the Christ Church College at Oxford University , where he developed…

Social Contract Theory of John Locke

Abstract John Locke’s theory of the Social Contract is ”merely a reasoned description of sound government but also a history of government from the earliest scatterings of humans, through their association in a social contract, to their rebellion when the terms of that contract are breached. ” 1 This theory gives us the reason behind the idea that government only works if the people want to be governed. Any individual in this instance has the expectation that they and what they do are only limited by their own will. So under the social contract theory, the individual gives up some of its right in order to reap the benefits of what a social order can offer. Introduction Locke’s Theory says…

John Locke Short Introduction

John Locke, who is widely known as the Father of Liberalism, is a great writer, philosopher and physician of the 17th century. He was born on 29 August 1632 and died on 28 October 1704 when he was 72. He was baptized on the same day as he was born. He was a gifted man and David Hume once described him as “wrote like a water-drinking local councilor, his style ungainly, his idioms commercial, his imagination puritanical, his humor labored, his purposes wholly practical. ” As he is a talented thinker and uses different perspectives to see and think on certain things, he revolutionized the Theory of Mind to the world in his masterpiece, “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”. On…

John Locke -Philosophy Essay

“The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom” – John Locke. What I feel that John Locke is attempting to express in his quote is that society believes that by having laws in place the government is taking away from the freedom they long to endure. However, by having laws in place it actually helps to enforce their rights to freedom. I chose John Locke as my topic for my final paper because I have taken an interest in the life he led, his inspirations and his role in politics. John Locke…

John Locke Leader of the Enlightenment

John Locke has had a great impact on governments, other leaders and equality during the Enlightenment, thus making him the most influential leader of that era. Locke’s literature – specifically his book The Two Treatises of Government – was the key to many of his contributions. “By far the most influential writings emerged from the pen of scholar John Locke” (Powell, Jim). In this book, Locke discusses the need for three natural rights, the right to property, life and liberty. All three rights pertained to equality and seeing as the Enlightenment Era revolved around individualism, his development and support of Natural Rights made him a great influence and role-model. Furthermore, John Locke was against the Divine Right of Kings and…

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

In three “Letters Concerning Toleration” , Locke suggested that governments should respect freedom of religion except when the rebellious belief was a danger to public order. Atheists and Catholics were excluded from his plan. Even within its limitations, Locke’s toleration did not argue that all (Protestant) beliefs were equally good or true, but simply that governments were not in a position to decide which one was correct. In 1666 Locke met the parliamentarian Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the first Earl of Shaftesbury. The two struck up a friendship that blossomed into full patronage, and a year later Locke was appointed physician to Shaftesbury’s household. That year he supervised a dangerous liver operation on Shaftesbury that likely saved his patron’s life….

Political philosophy

Locke was born in the village of Wrington, Somerset, on August 29, 1632. He was educated at the University of Oxford and lectured on Greek, rhetoric, and moral philosophy at Oxford from 1661 to 1664. In 1667 Locke began his association with the English statesman Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of Shaftesbury, to whom Locke was friend, adviser, and physician. Shaftesbury secured for Locke a series of minor government appointments. In 1669, in one of his official capacities, In 1675, after the liberal Shaftesbury lost is power, Locke went to France. In 1679 he returned to England, but in view of his opposition to the Roman Catholicism favored by the English monarchy at that time, he soon found it expedient…

Two Treatises of Government

John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Warington, a village in Somerset, England. In 1646 he went to Westminster school, and in 1652 to Christ Church in Oxford. In 1659 he was elected to a senior studentship, and tutored at the college for a number of years. Still, contrary to the curriculum, he complained that he would rather be studying Descartes than Aristotle. In 1666 he declined an offer of preferment, although he thought at one time of taking up clerical work. In 1668 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1674 he finally graduated as a bachelor of medicine. In 1675 he was appointed to a medical studentship at the college. He owned…

Political philosophy

Although John Locke was a role model to many and influenced many varieties of people some may say that he was self-involved within himself to make himself look better. They also might say that he used the people to only get the government he wanted for himself. John Locke, a man of liberty and justness, was resolved in some parliament and kings eyes, a flake because he went against their preaching. They concluded him to be wrong for his thoughts on heightening the enlightenment. They would try to sabotage him any way they could. The people that were there for their king in every way possible would include hurtful words on how john Locke should be stopped. The legislatures with…

United States Declaration of Independence

John Locke was one of the most important and influential philosophers ever in history, which he expressed through writing. John Locke was born on August 29, 1632 to John Locke and Agnes Keene, in a cottage by the church in Wrington, in the English county of Somerset. Immediately after he was born he was baptized. Both of his parents were Puritans and he was raised that way. His father was a country lawyer and a military man, in which he was a captain during the English Civil War. John Locke received a great education because of his father’s connections to the English government. In 1647, John joined Westminster school in London, this is where he earned the honor of being…

Political philosophy

* Widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism * Was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers * His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. * Considered one of the first of the British empiricists. he is equally important to social contract theory. * Published the “Two treatises of Government” in 1689 Two treatises of Government * Two Treatises is divided into the First Treatise and the Second Treatise. * The First Treatise is focused on the refutation of Sir Robert Filmer, in particular his Patriarcha, which argued that civil society was founded on a divinely sanctioned patriarchalism. Locke proceeds through Filmer’s arguments, contesting…

United States Declaration of Independence

John Locke is among the most influential political philosophers of the modern period. One can easily see his tremendous influence on democracies throughout the world, especially the United States, today. Locke was born during 1632 in Somerset, England. He was the son of a Puritan lawyer who fought with the Parliamentarians against the King in the English Civil War. At the age of 14, Locke attended Westminster School; and later went on to study at Oxford University. At the age of 43, Locke had traveled to France, where he would stay for four years to study Descartes and other great minds of the age. Locke then moved to Holland in 1683 amongst political unrest in England, which made living there…

Epistemology Study Guide

1. How can the senses deceive us? a. Our senses are how we perceive the world. Our eyes, nose, tongue, fingers, and ears feed raw information to our brain, which then turns it into information we can use. If we lose one of our senses, we lose that entire set of raw data. As such, we place incredible amounts of reliance on our senses. The only way our senses can deceive us is if they give us the wrong data, which then becomes wrong information. If life is an illusion, then our senses could be getting the information it’s getting from anywhere. 2. How widespread is this deception? b. If our senses are deceiving us, then our entire worlds are…

Examine the Case for Innate Ideas

A fundamental part of a rationalists belief is that we obtain knowledge in thought by just thinking rather than from experience, for these reasons the idea that we are born with innate ideas are crucial to any rationalist. In this essay I will explore the concept of innate ideas and the rationalist’s arguments to support the idea and also the empiricists ideas to argue against the idea. The idea of innate ideas is that from birth we already have ideas in our minds and that we are not a blank sheet, some people believe these ideas are put into our minds by god. Rationalists also believe that we do not need experience to acquire these ideas and we are capable…

Are we born with knowledge?

Are we born with knowledge? Of course we are. In this speech, I am going to argue about how ability is knowledge and what knowledge we have when we were younger. As a child, we have been brought up by our environment and culture. Without this, what knowledge would we have? Let’s say, the minute a child is born, and you throw this new born baby into a “swimming pool” or “water” it will immediately be able to swim or float. Now the question is, where did this baby get the knowledge of being able to swim from? They were born with it. Many people would disagree with the fact that babies are born with knowledge. For example, David Hume…

Strengths of Empiricism

Empiricism is the claim that sense experience is the sole source of our knowledge about the world. (Lawhead, 55) According to Empiricists, such as John Locke, all knowledge comes from direct sense experience. Locke’s concept of knowledge comes from his belief that the mind is a “blank slate or tabula rosa” at birth, and our experiences are written upon the slate. Therefore, there are no innate experiences. The three strengths of empiricism that will be explained in this paper are: it proves a theory, gives reasoning, and inspires others to explore probabilities in science as an example. The first strength of empiricism is it proves a theory. Empiricists believe that only real knowledge is empirical. We learn from experiment and…

Are we born with knowledge?

Are we born with knowledge? Of course we are. In this speech, I am going to argue about how ability is knowledge and what knowledge we have when we were younger. As a child, we have been brought up by our environment and culture. Without this, what knowledge would we have? Let’s say, the minute a child is born, and you throw this new born baby into a “swimming pool” or “water” it will immediately be able to swim or float. Now the question is, where did this baby get the knowledge of being able to swim from? They were born with it. Many people would disagree with the fact that babies are born with knowledge. For example, David Hume…

Theories of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes

The concept of social contract theory is that in the beginning man lived in the state of nature. They had no government and there was no law to regulate them. There were hardships and oppression on the sections of the society. To overcome from these hardships they entered into two agreements which are:- 1. DzPactum Unionisdz; and 2. DzPactum Subjectionisdz. By the first pact of unionis, people sought protection of their lives and property. As, a result of it a society was formed where people undertook to respect each other and live in peace and harmony. By the second pact of subjectionis, people united together and pledged to obey an authority and surrendered the whole or part of their freedom…