Organization today are depending more on their Human resource. The Human resource management is on managing people within the employer employee relationship to achieve organization strategic business objectives and to satisfy employee needs (Stone, 2010). Ineffective HRM is a major barrier to employee satisfaction and organization success. Therefore it is important to have a proper match between employee capabilities and the job performed. Therefore job analysis and job description are important aspects when it’s come to the part of recruitment and selection. A Job analysis was traditionally done mainly for the purpose regarding recruitment, pay, administration and supervision (Pareek & Rao, 1992). A Job description is a written document explaining why a job exists, what the job holder actually does, how they do it and under what condition the job is performed (Stone, 2010). Job analysis is a chief tool in personal management.
This means the Human resource manager need a good understanding of work and how it is organized to ensure that the organization’s strategic business objectives are being supported and employee needs are being met. Organizations that fail to have the right people in the right place at the right time are at risk. This portfolio contains a research of job analysis and job description followed by a job interview and a job description of a ……………………… Human resource manager to obtain a proper understanding and learn about them. In addition this contains a reflection of the importance of whole research about job analysis and job description and the experience which was shared at the interview. This report is mainly concern on giving a pure understanding about job analysis, job description, job specification and job design.
This is done by considering at each tool, method and technique to make the job analysis, description, specification and design effective. The report also highlights the issues related to each of the areas and the importance of all the above to management, especially where human resource management is pointed out. The job position analysis questionnaire was filled by him to further enrich the job analysis, description, specification and design. This was done in order to help grasp the concept of job analysis and job description in detail. The report concludes with reflections on the overall process. Moreover the interview and the job analysis questionnaire is attached in the appendix for advance explanation and material.
2. JOB ANALYSIS
2.1 Concept of Job analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it (Dessler, 2005, p.112). In other words Job analysis is “the systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the task, duties, and responsibilities” (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin & Cardy, 2003, p.64). A job analysis notifies the time it takes to complete relevant tasks in a relevant position; the tasks that are grouped together under a single job position; ways to design or structure a job maximizing employee performance; the employee behavioral pattern associated with performance of the job; the traits and attributes of a proper candidate for the job and the ways the data can be used to develop human resource management.
2.2 Components of Job analysis
Job analysis provides information about three basic aspects of a job those are job content, job requirements and job context. Job content describes the duties and responsibilities of the job. Job requirements identify the formal qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities and personal characteristics that employees need to perform the content of the job in a particular situation. Job context refers to situational and supporting information regarding the particular job (Stone., 2008, p.125).
2.3 Process of Job analysis
An effective and right process of analyzing a particular job is a great relief for them. It helps them maintain the right quality of employees, measure their performance on realistic standards, assess their training and development needs and increase their productivity. The process of job analysis involves in-depth investigation in order to control the output, get the job performed successfully. The process helps in finding out what a particular department requires and what a prospective worker needs to deliver.
However, the process is not limited to determination of these factors only. It also extends to finding out the necessary human qualifications to perform the job. These include establishing the levels of education, experience, judgment, training, initiative, leadership skills, physical skills, communication skills, responsibility, accountability, emotional characteristics and unusual sensory demands.
Job Analysis Objective
The purpose of the job analysis is to collect information for, * Job description
* Job specification
* Job design
* HR Planning
Types of Information to be Collected
* What is performed?
* Where is it performed?
* How is it performed?
* Why is it performed?
* When is it performed?
Methods of data collection
* Critical incident reports
Sources of Data
* Job incumbent
* Job Analyst
* Plans & blueprints
* HR information management systems
Form of Data Analysis
(Stone., 2008, figure.5.3)
2.4 Methods of Job analysis
Though there are several methods of collecting job analysis information yet choosing the one or a combination of more than one method depends upon the needs and requirements of organization and the objectives of the job analysis process. All the methods focus on collecting the basic job-related information. There are three job analysis methods, observation method, questionnaire method, interview method. An observation method observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks (Nankervis., Compton., & Baird, 2008).
Interview method suggest that an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers (Nankervis., Compton., & Baird, 2008). Questionnaire method is where a survey form with both objective and open ended questions will be given to the job holders to fill. This is not time consuming and can be done without distributing the employee on the job (Herzberg, 1966).
2.5 Benefits of Job analysis
The Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information, in the form of job description and specifications, helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated. Job analysis can also help reveals un assigned duties.
It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees. It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern. (Dessler., 2005, p.113)
3. JOB DESCRIPTION
3.1 Concept of Job description
A job description is a written statement explaining why a job exists, what the job holder actually does, how they do it and under what condition the job is performed (Stone., 2008, p.129). Job description is the foundations of job evaluation. It reviews the nature and the requirements of the job and it permits its evaluation relatively to other jobs. Once the relative worth of a job has been determined, an appropriate level of pay and benefits can be established. It contains the objectives of the job, duties and responsibilities, how to maintain relationships internally with senior line and functional mangers, required knowledge ,authority, accountability, circumstance and other important fact that important for the job to be performed (Stone., 2010). It shows why the job or the position exists and under what conditions the job to be performed.
3.2 Components of job
There is no standard format used for writing a job description. However most description contains sections that cover. * Job identification- The job identification contains several types of information. It includes information on the employee’s job title, department and reporting relationships. * Job summary- The primary purpose or objective of the position. This describes the general nature of the job and includes only its major functions or activities. * Duties and responsibilities- This section listing out the major job duties and responsibilities and indicates clearly and specifically what the employees must do. * Relationships- This indicates the relationship with other positions, which means relationships within and external to the organization.
* Know how- This is concerned with the minimum levels of knowledge, skills, abilities, experience and formal qualifications required to do the job. * Accountability- This highlights the impact of job by identifying the value of assets, sales volume, payroll and etc. * Authority- This identifies the specific rights and limitations that apply to the positions decision making authority. * Special circumstances- This section is concerned with what is special, unusual or hazardous about the positions and the environment in which the job is performed. * Performance standards- This section identifies the standard required for effective performance and the measures for the evaluating performance. * Trade union or association- This section identifies any staff association or trade union membership required.
3.3 Purpose of Job description
Using job descriptions will help an organization better understand the experience and skill base needed to enhance the success of the company? They help in the hiring, evaluation and potentially terminating of employees. The main purpose of job description is to collect job related data’s in order to advertise for a particular job which helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the right job. It clarifies what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job opening. It gives recruiting staff a clear view what kind of candidate is required by a particular department or division to perform a specific task or job. Job description also clarifies who will report to whom.
It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances. This helps in recruitment and selection procedures. It assists in manpower planning and it is also helpful in performance appraisal. It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job. It also helps in chalking out training and development programs. (Management study guide, 2012)
3.4 Criticism of Job description
The traditional job description has been criticized for being a straightjacket suitable only for repetitive work. Being the static written description, it ignores the dynamic of the job (Stone., 2008, p.134) Sometimes, they are not updated as job duties or job specifications change. If they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they will provide little guidance to incumbents, supervisor, manager… They may violate the labor law by containing contents not related or violated.
They can limit the scope of activities of incumbents, reducing organizational flexibility. Casio describes job description are being behaviorally sterile, this is especially true for problem solving and managerial work. However, if we carefully consider the format and the degree of details to be used then we can avoid these types of problems and also should ensure that the descriptions are prepared with care such as be clear, accurate and sufficient for the intended purposes, using non-prejudicial language.
4. JOB SPECIFICATION
A list of job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education skills, personality and so on or another product of job analysis (Dessler., 2005, p.112). It also known as person specification. The job specification or personal specification is derived from the job description. Job specification simply identifies the experience, qualification, skills, abilities and knowledge, personal qualities and special requirements needed to perform the job successfully (Stone., 2008, p.149) 4.1 Advantages of job specification
Improve operating efficiencies through the use of low skill and low cost labor. Easy control of production quantities and fewer errors made when workers perform simple routine jobs. Low cost labor has been a prime motivator among industrial engineers in their promotion of job specification.
4.2 Problems of Job specification
Repetition- Employees perform only a few tasks that have to be repeated many times Mechanical pacing- Employees are restricted by the speed of the assembly line, which requires them to maintain a regular work. Lack of flexibility- Employee cannot cover for each other, which creates problems when employees are absent or have to leave the work place. High cost- Employees frequently dislike highly specialized jobs, so they tend to quit or absent themselves. Absenteeism and high labor turnover increase the costs of recruitment, selection and training, and pressure employers to pay higher rates to keep employees on the job (Stone., 2008, p.149).
5. JOB DESIGN
Job design is a specification of the content of a job, the material and equipment required to do the job, and the relation of the job to other jobs (Stone., 2008, p.148). Job design essentially involves integrating job responsibilities or content and certain qualifications that are required to perform the same. It outlines the job responsibilities very clearly and also helps in attracting the right candidates to the right job. Further it also makes the job look interesting and specialized. While the job analysis process focuses on the organization’s expectations of the role, job design focuses on meeting the needs of both the employee and employer. This is becoming a critical issue in the relation of employees in today’s market, particularly with positions in limited supply. (Herzberg, 1966).
6. JOB ANALYSIS INTERVIEW
As mentioned before a Job Analysis could be conducted in a number of different ways. Organizations have their own methods of conducting a Job Analysis. Out of the three main types of methods this report will be focusing in the Interview method. This is a face to face interview conducted with the……………………………………………………………………………… The reason as to why an interview is done is because it gives a more realistic approach towards making decisions about the candidate and it will be a more rational and valid interview.
6.1 SELECTED QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THE INTERVIEW
To make a valid detailed job description it is essential to do a considerable amount of research on the job incumbent (Stone, 2010).When a job analysis is conducted; the criteria or competencies that are deemed necessary have been identified (Price, 2004). There are several methods such as to as interviews, dairies, observations and questionnaires can be used to gather relevant information for the position which is planned to make the job description. For the purpose of portfolio interview was carried out with the……………………………………. And the interview questions were structured to cover all most all the aspect of the relevant position to create the job description.
1. Introduction about job holder and job position
* Could you give a brief introduction about yourself and your position?
* For how long have you been in current position?
2. Nature of the job and the purpose
* What are the main focuses of your job?
* What are your normal working hours?
* What are the most critical aspects, duties and responsibilities of your jobs?
* As a HR manager what are your main challenges?
* What do you consider as the most critical activity that a HR manager should participate in? State the reason why?
* What is the overall purpose of the job?
* What your objectives as a HR manager?
* What your personal goals as a HR manager?
* Are there any special HR practices which motivate people to continue their work?
3. Academic, qualifications, knowledge, experience and skills required * What are the basic and most crucial skills required to perform this job?
* What are the skills essential to perform the job?
* How widely does the skill of decision making help you in your present carrier? * What are some of the mental attribute necessary for the job? * What are the physical attributes required for your job? * Are you allowed to make decision related to any areas within HRM? * How do leadership abilities contribute to your line of work? * What personal qualities have helped you to achieve success in your job? * Any important characteristics required for better performance of the job?
4. Duties and responsibilities of the job position
* Which are the main duties and responsibilities of your position? * What do you think are the most critical duties and responsibilities for a HR manager? * Explain how you motivate your HR department employee and how assist them with reaching their professional development goal? * What types of strengths and weakness do you experience in performing your duties?
5. Job criteria
* What records or reports do you prepare?
* To whom do you directly report to?
* What would you define as success in your job?
* In which situation would you usually refer to your supervisor?
6. Job results
* How do you think your job position fits in with the other career positions in the organization? * Do you find the job that you perform now is interesting and state why? * Describe one of the most difficult situations that you handled in the organization, could you explain the right measures you took to overcome that particular situation? * What are the most motivating factors you find in your job position? * What do you think as a HR the most essential attributes that are required by management graduated to make it bi in the corporate worls?
7. Communications methods
* Do you perceive communication as important aspects for the success in HR work?
* Which method of communication do you prefer mostly (horizontal or vertical) and state why?
8. Personal views and future goals
* What sort of management strategies you use in your work?
* As a HR manager, what are your future goals for the betterment of the organization?
* Tell about memorable moments of your HR career?
* When looking back at your career, are you happy about your path you have walked?
* What differentiates your group from others in the market, could you tell us what is the hierarchy levels in the market?
* What would your advice for the next person who will take your position?
7. JOB DESCRIPTION
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Porter, J.E. (2009). Human Resource Management for public and nonprofit organizations. (3rd ed.,P_150-151). United States of America, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Herzberg, F.(1966). Work and Nature of work. Cleveland: World Publishing.