Job analysis—The procedure for determining the tasks and responsibilities of each a job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform the job.
The outcomes of job analysis will be:
Job description (what the job entails),
Job specifications (what the human requirements are needed for the job).
Job analysis is something called the cornerstone of HRM, because the outcomes of job analysis (job descriptions and job specifications) are the basis for most of the interrelated HRM activities, including recruitment and selection, HR planning, training, performance appraisal, pay and benefits, health and safety, labour relation, and so on (you can think about more areas).
The Phases and Steps in Job Analysis
Phase One: Preparation for job analysis
1. Step 1: Familiarize with the organization and its jobs
2. Step 2: Determine uses of job analysis information
3. Step 3: Select representative jobs to be analysis.
Phase 2: Collection of job analysis information
4. Step 4: Determine sources of job data (Human and nonhuman sources) 5. Step 5: Data collection instrument design (Job analysis schedules) 6. Step 6: Choice of method for data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire, etc.) 7. Step 7: Develop a job descriptions and job specifications.
Phases 3: Use of Job analysis Information (for other HR management areas)
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
Collecting job analysis data usually involves a joint effort by an HR specialist, the incumbent, and the jobholder’s supervisor.
Job analysis techniques can be categorized into 2 groups: Qualitative methods and quantitative methods.
Qualitative methods mainly include
1) Interview, including individual interview, group interview, and supervisory interview 2) Questionnaires—having employees fill out questionnaires to describe the job related information (See Figure 2-4, P. 62-63 of the text) 3) Observation it is useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities. 4) Participant diary/log – Asking employees to keep a diary/log or a list of what they do during the day.
Quantitative methods mainly include
1) Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Very structured job analysis questionnaire
Contains 194 items, each of which represents a basic element Provides quantitative job score on five dimensions of job requirements: having decision-making, communication, or social responsibilities performing skilled activities
being physical active
Results from PAQ can be used to compare jobs and help determine appropriate pay level.
2) Functional Job Analysis (FJA), a quantitative job analysis method for classifying jobs based on : types and amounts of responsibilities for three functions: data, people, and things the extent to which instructions, reasoning judgment
verbal/language facilities required
It also identifies performance standards and training requirements.
3) The National Occupational Classification (NOC) –See P. 67-68 of the text Complied by the Human Resources Development Canada
An excellent source of standardized job analysis information, containing comprehensive description of approximately 20,000 occupations. A reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specification It’s counseling component: Career Handbook.
Classifying system of NOC (See the website:
Major group –identified by two digital numbers.
Minor group –identified by one digital number
Unit group –identified by one digital number
Writing Job Descriptions
A job description needs to tell:
What the jobholder actually does,
How he or she does it, and
Under what conditions the job is performed
The 6 Basic Element of Job Description (See example in Figure2-6, P. 66 of the text): 1) Job identification
2) Job summary—describing the nature of the job, listing only its major functions or activities. 3) Duties and responsibilities
5) Performance standards
6) Working conditions
Writing Job Specification
The 6 basic element of job specification:
1) Job identification *
2) Job summary *
3) Specific skills
4) Effort factors
5) Working conditions *
Notes: items with a “*” can be the same and combined with those in job descriptions.
Job Design—the process of systematically organizing work into tasks required to perform a job
Job Design Considerations (also refer to PowerPoint slides)
Employee considerations (considering human behavioual aspects) Environmental considerations
In the history of job design, people usually follow two schools of thinking: 1) To simply the jobs. This practice emphasizes the efficiency of production but pays concern in workers’ well-being 2) To enrich the jobs. This practice emphasizes both efficiency and workers’ needs and well-being
The Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
To understand this model, we need to understand the basic dimensions and their relationship to psychological states and work outcomes –See Page 77-78 of the text. The 3 critical psychological states
The basic theory underlying the model is that desirable outcomes both for the person, in terms of internal satisfaction and motivation, and for the organization, in terms of high quality performance and low absenteeism and turnover, will result only if the worker can achieve three critical psychological status: 1. The work must be experienced as meaningful, worthwhile, or important. 2. The worker must experience that he or she is personally responsible for the work outcome, that is, accountable for the product of his or her efforts. 3. The worker must be able to determine in some regular and reliable way how his or her efforts are coming out, what results are achieved, and whether or not they are satisfactory.
The core job characteristics are then derived by observing what kinds of job characteristics are more or less likely to lead to the desired psychological states.
The 5 Core Job Characteristics
1) Skill variety – using different skill and talents to complete a variety of work activities. 2) Task identity – the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work. 3) Task significance – the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the organization and /or larger society. 4) Autonomy – the degree to which a job gives employees the freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule their work and determine the procedures to be used to complete the work. 5) Job feedback – the degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing based on direct sensory information from the job itself.
The Relationship between the above Theories and Management Strategies can be reflexed by various job design strategies as listed below:
Strategies for enriching jobs:
Based on the Job Characteristics Model, we can employ the job design strategies of: Job rotation –arrange employees to rotate to different job during a certain period of time. Job enlargement- put more related tasks into a job to make it larger. Job enrichment- let employees have more autonomy and involve in thinking aspects of the jobs. Employee involvement and work teams
Use of job families in HR Decisions
Increasing job flexibility
–cognitively complex, more team-based, more dependent on social skills and technological competence, time pressured, mobile, and less dependent on geography
Read Chapters 2 and 3 of text
Visit the website of National Occupational Classification
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