A job analysis is a way to describe a job or the attributes needed to obtain the job (Spector, 2012). Different jobs need people with certain attributes; these attributes help the job be completed as necessary. A job analysis can help companies hire the right employees, and this creates a successful working environment. There are two different job analysis approaches; each approach focuses on different needs for a job. The first is the Job-Oriented approach; this approach describes the nature of the job, some job analysis, go into specific task (Spector, 2012).
The second is the Person-oriented approach; this approach describes the specific attributes or characteristics needed to successfully do the job (Spector, 2012). This paper will conduct a job analysis for my preferred job using one of the job analysis methods and discuss how it could be used within an organization. Evaluate the reliability and validity of the job analysis. Evaluate different performance appraisal methods that might be applied to my chosen job and explain the various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method.
Job Analysis: School Psychologist To analyze the job that I would dream to have I will be using both the Job-oriented approach and the person-oriented approach. I will be describing both the task and attributes a school psychologist needs. To start off with the job-oriented approach, which describes the jobs nature and specific tasks, I will describe what being a school psychologist is all about. School psychologists help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally.
They collaborate with educators, parents, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments that strengthen connections between home, school, and the community for all students. School psychologists not only work with students but they also provide services for families, teachers, administrators, and the community. Job-Oriented Approach According to the National Associations of School Psychologist the following are tasks that school psychologist need to complete to be successful job.
When it comes to students they Provide counseling, instruction, and mentoring for those struggling with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Increase achievement by assessing barriers to learning and determining the best instructional strategies to improve learning. Promote wellness and resilience by reinforcing communication and social skills, problem solving, anger management, self-regulation, self-determination, and optimism. Enhance understanding and acceptance of diverse cultures and backgrounds.
They also help out families by identifying and addressing learning and behavior problems that interfere with school success. Evaluate eligibility for special education services, support students’ social, emotional, and behavioral health, also teach parenting skills and enhance home–school collaboration, and make referrals and help coordinate community support services. School psychologist also provides a support for teachers by identifying and resolving academic barriers to learning. Design and implement student progress monitoring systems and academic and behavioral interventions.
Support effective individualized instruction, create positive classroom environments, and motivate all students to engage in learning. School psychologist also give support to administrators by collecting and analyzing data related to school improvement, student outcomes, and accountability requirements. Implement school-wide prevention programs that help maintain positive school climates conducive to learning. Promote school policies and practices that ensure the safety of all students by reducing school violence, bullying, and harassment.
Respond to crises by providing leadership, direct services, and coordination with needed community services. There are many tasks that come with being a school psychologist; they provide support for many different departments of a school, and take on tasks that are delicate. Person-Oriented Approach Person-oriented approach lists the characteristics and attributes needed to be a school psychologist. Since this job is very serious and deals with people’s mental and emotional health, the first and most important attribute is education.
The job needs extensive knowledge of the field and practice before being able to qualify for this job. Other requirements are positive attitude, loving the job, loving to help people, and love psychology. They also have to be focused and responsible because if they aren’t an accident can occur. The person should also be able to keep their personal life and their job separate. If they cannot do this their job can affect their personal job or vise versa. From the job tasks these are the attributes that an individual has to have to be able to be successful at this job. Evaluation
There are many job analysis types and not all are appropriate for the type of job application (Spector, 2012). Each has its limitations and advantages, and it works for different purposes. The reliability and validity of a job analysis can be questioned because the analysis is made by a person who is either doing the job or watching someone do it (Spector, 2012). The biggest thing that we do as human beings is judge, and judgment can make a job analysis not reliable or valid. In this case I am not a school psychologist, and I am actually reading about the job, my judgment can have a big impact on the job analysis.
Validity and reliability are questionable madder but as quoted “In general, results suggest that different people’s ratings of jobs are often reasonably reliable. In other words, there will be a relatively high correlation among different people’s ratings of the same job for at least some job analysis methods (Spector, 2013 p. 72-73). ” In other words some job analysis methods may have the same ratings for certain jobs. Appraisals in the work place can be very time consuming for supervisors but it has a good outcome, appraisals create a better performance in the work place.
When someone is appraised for their good work they get satisfaction, and that’s something they want to keep receiving so they keep up the good work. For my chosen job I think that appraisals should be given, because a school psychologist makes people feel good and therefore they should get appraisal to feel good about what they are doing. Conclusion Becoming a school psychologist you have to have a lot of qualifications and characteristics that will make you successful at this job, and making sure that you know what it takes and if you are qualified for the job can be determined by a job analysis.
There are many methods to conduct a job analysis, you can use the job-oriented approach or the person-oriented approach, only two of the many. These types of analysis can explain if you are right for a job. This paper conducted a job analysis for a school psychologist job by using both job-oriented and person-oriented approach and discussed how it could be used within an organization. Evaluated the reliability and validity of the job analysis. Evaluated different performance appraisal methods that might be applied to my school psychologist job and explain the various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method.