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Jeremy Bentham Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Utilitarianism and Business Ethics

Utilitarianism is a normative, consequentialist, empirical philosophy which links the idea of a good action to one which promotes maximum pleasure or happiness, found by adding up costs and benefits (or pains and pleasures). It has two classic formulations – Bentham’s hedonistic (pleasure-based) act utilitarianism and Mill’s eudaimonistic (happiness-based) rule utilitarianism. In this article we make some preliminary comments on Bentham and Mill before analysing a famous case in 1972 where utilitarian ethics seemed to cause a very immoral outcome – the Ford Pinto case. BENTHAM (1748-1832) Bentham rejected Christianity and was influenced by David Hume (1711-76) and the French philosophe Helvitius, who argued that true justice was synonomous with the good of the whole. He formulated the greatest happiness…

Skepticism Philosophy

Skepticism: • It comes from the Greek word skeptikoi which means “seekers” or “inquirers. ” • It refers to the critical attitude wherein a man questions different things including the well-known absolute truth or knowledge. • Note that skepticism (philosophical that is) should be contrasted with philosophical dogmatism wherein the latter is the direct opposite of the former. Philosophical dogmatism refers to an attitude wherein a man believes to have absolute truth/knowledge (“dogma,” meaning strict rules). Short History of Skepticism Classical Skepticism. Gorgias • A Sophist who believed that nothing really exists. • He lived from 483-376 B. C. (Leontini, Italy). He went to Athens to fulfill his mission as an ambassador. He was a student of Empedocles. • In…

Outline the important concepts of utilitarianism

The theory of utilitarianism determines the rightness or wrongness of an action by its consequences. This is determined by measuring the amount of pleasure or pain brought to someone caused by an action. Utilitarianism is a teleological theory of ethics, this means that it is concerned with the outcome and the consequences, meaning that an act is not right or wrong in itself but is right or wrong depending on the outcome of said action. The main founder of this theory was Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Bentham worked to fight many things during his time such as industrialisation, mass migration and poverty. Utilitarianism is a relativist system – meaning there are no fixed rules, it is also concequentialist – this means…

The Power of Observation

The power of sight and observation are two actions that are generally associated with one another. However, what we fail to acknowledge is that these two actions, although associated with the same sense, have different responsibilities to fulfill. Although seeing is a habitual act we perform the second we open our eyes to when we fall asleep, we are not always observing our surroundings. Observation differs from sight due to the fact that when we observe, we are vividly noticing aspects of something or someone in order to gain information whereas sight is simply the faculty, or driving force, of seeing. We are able to obtain more powerful knowledge if we go about our days observing rather than just living…

The Case of the Speluncean Explorers

The case of the Speluncean explorers The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse one of the five judgments in the case of the Speluncean explorers. There will be three main parts to this essay. First, five key aspects that were evident in the Judge’s decision making process will be summarised. Second, fundamental aspects of legal positivism will be identified and described. Finally, a critique of legal positivism will be provided utilising two main concepts from this theoretical perspective. Chief Justice Truepenny’s decision making process will now be summarised. Trupenny used the following key aspects to make a decision on his judgement on the Case of the Speluncean Explorers. All judges must follow Laws of Commonwealth, which are set…