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James Cook & Matthew Maury Essay

The contributions of James Cook, Matthew Maury, and the Challenger Expedition enabled people to have a deeper understanding of the ocean. James Cook was the first person to craft a map of Newfoundland and was the one who made three voyages across the Pacific Ocean. Basically, it was Cook’s various navigational charts and maps that enabled scientists to conduct a deeper study of the ocean during that time. It also allowed them to find out how large the Pacific Ocean was and what species dwell there among others. For his part, possibly Matthew Maury’s most significant contribution was his study of ocean currents.

This study provided a better understanding of the direction of the flow of water in the ocean as well as the migration pattern of whales. Finally, the Challenger Expedition allowed the study of even more parts of the ocean around the world and laid the foundation for the existing principles of oceanography. 2. The three type of convergent plate boundaries are oceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, and continental-continental. In the oceanic-oceanic convergence, the oceanic plate is subducted under another one and this ultimately results in the formation of a trench.

This type of convergence can also form volcanoes. One example of this type is the Pacific plate converging against the Philippine plate and. On the other hand, in the oceanic-continental convergence, an oceanic plate is subducted under a continental plate. One example of this is the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the continental South American Plate, which resulted in the formation of the Andes Mountains. Lastly, in the continental-continental convergence, one continental plate or land plate is subducted under another.

The best examples of this type of convergence are the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibetan Plateau, which formed as a direct result of the convergence of two continental plates. 3. Basically, oceanic depths are directly related to plate tectonics mainly because plate tectonic processes happen only at depth of oceans. In other words, since there are no tectonic plates above the ocean floor, oceanic depths play a key role in plate tectonic processes. The significance of ocean depths also applies in certain plate tectonic processes such as the divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries and the abyssal plains.

Divergent boundaries happen when two plates move apart from each other while slowly moving in opposite directions. Convergent boundaries involve two plates move towards each other which sometimes results in the sinking or subduction of one plate under another. On the other hand, Abyssal plains are flat and sloping areas found on the ocean floor. These are formed when the up-welling mantle moves up and melts the lower crust, which in turn reaches surface at the middle of ocean ridges and ultimately forms an oceanic crust. 4.

Siliceous ooze is made up of plankton debris together with silica shells like radiolaria and diatoma. This type of ooze is usually found only in areas with an increased biological production such as the upwelling zones close to the equator and the polar oceans. Its distribution across the ocean floor is only 15%. Calcareous ooze results from a high content of calcium carbonate in an area such as aragonite and calcite and is highly distributed across the ocean. The main cause of these distributions is the marine plankton who dies near the surface and sinks to ocean floor.

Most of these planktons produce shells from calcium carbonate, producing calcareous ooze which is also the reason why there is a larger distribution of this type of ooze. Other planktons have bodies that are made up of diatoma and radiolariam which result in the formation of siliceous ooze. 5. The main consequence of the polar nature of water molecules is that keeps a lot of ions weak and dissolved. Every water molecule has one positive side and one negative side. The positive end has two hydrogen atoms while the negative end has one oxygen atoms.

This nature of water results in it having good cohesion and surface tension, good solvent properties, high heat capacity and good conductivity. The significance of these consequences to oceanography is that they set guidelines for scientists or researchers who study bodies of water. In other words, being aware of the consequences of the polar nature of water helps people involved in oceanography to have a better understanding of their subjects such as the ocean’s ecosystems and marine organisms, among others.

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