What is genetic diversity and how it relates to many different characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. “High genetic diversity indicates many different kinds of alleles for each characteristic, and low genetic diversity indicates that nearly all the individuals in the population have the same alleles”. Genetic diversity relates to certain issues which include mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size. Genetic diversity is the variation of heritable characteristics present in a population of the same species.
It serves an important role in evolution by allowing a species to adapt to a new environment and to fight off parasites. It is applicable to domesticated species, which typically have low levels of genetic diversity. Studying genetic diversity in humans can help researchers form theories on human origins (What Is Genetic Diversity? , 2013). Mutations are stable changes in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations can be caused by many different things such as radiation. They can also be induced by the organism itself.
Mutations happen naturally when genes have dysfunctions. Modifications in DNA caused by mutations can cause errors in protein sequence, creating partially or completely non-functional proteins. “Many mutations are harmful, but very rarely one will occur that is valuable to the organism”. Sexual reproduction is the formation of a new individual following the union of two gametes.
These gametes have specific needs. A gamete has to meet and unite together. They also must have food to nourish the developing embryo. The new member may have a unique combination of characteristics so superior to those of the other members of the population that the new member will be much more successful in producing offspring” (Sexual Reproduction in Human Beings, 2013). “Migration of individuals from one genetically distinct population to another is also an important way for alleles to be added to or subtracted from a local population”. There are a number of factors that affect the rate of gene flow between different populations.
One of the most major factors is mobility. Animals tend to be more carried great distances by animals or wind. Population size is the number of individual organisms in a population. Acccording to Wikipedia, A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, who live in the same geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. In ecology the population of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the Lincoln Index.
The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area. The probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Under normal conditions, breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border. In sociology, population refers to a collection of human beings. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations (Population, 2013).