Sayyid Qutb also known as (Father of Modern Islamic Extremism) is an academic and writer who is said to be one of the most significant thinkers in modern and contemporary Arab Islamic resurgence, born on the 8th of October 1960 and living his life until being executed by hanging on the 29th of August 1966. His main impact on Islam is through his expression of the religion as a universal philosophy, a political and social force with the potential to provide solutions to all societal problems.
Qutb believed that returning to a true Islamic state would provide social justice and cure societal malaise as “Islam stands against corruption, oppression and capitalism. ” His main beliefs, including the concept of jahiliyyah (a non-Muslim) and his understanding of jihad are expressed through his two main books “The Shade of the Qur’an” and “Milestones”. These books were heavily criticised by many Orthodox Muslims and Salafi scholars, they are widely read. Directly opposing Jahilliyah perceived authorities had been placed in the minds of a new generation of Muslim youth.
In this sense it is clear to see that he has had a dramatic effect on the development and expression of Islam. Although many conservative Muslims and Islamic scholars believe he lacked respect for Islamic traditions and wrongly interpreted the Qur’an, many other Muslims and modern Jihadists consider him a martyr. Qutb came to reject everything about the west due to the experiences he faced while visiting America, including democracy and nationalism. The United States at that time was, politically and socially, perhaps at the height of the West.
Because it was so bad, he concluded that nothing the west had to offer was good. Unfortunately the Egyptian government at that time was very pro-western, and his new views brought him into conflict with the current regime. Like so many other young radicals, he was thrown in prison, where deprivation and torture were the norm. it was there, horrified by the barbarism of the camp guards, that he probably lost hope that the current regime could be called “Muslim”. These Muslims kept the survival of his a legacy, believing his effect on the development and expression of Islam to be a positive one.
A society whose legislation does not rest on divine law (shari’at Allah) is not Muslim, however ardently its individuals may proclaim themselves Muslim, even if they pray, fast and make the pilgrimage. What we did not know was that Sayyid Qutb was soon to be the mentor of the notorious Osama Bin Laden, who would come later to be known for terrorist activites. Ethics – Sexual Ethics The Qur’an is the basic source of ethical teachings, such as judgements, statements in it either remind humanity of the basic common sense created by God, or extend this common sense to specific examples or situations and present specific behavioural expectations.
Another teaching is the Hadith; it contains the teachings and sayings of Prophet Muhammad that explain the teachings of the Qur’an. It places the Qur’an into the context of daily life. The Sirah is a similar collection of works aiming to clarify the teachings within the Qur’an; however the collection of stories has none of the prophet’s original work. Islam considers sexuality to be a part of a person’s divinely created identity with the ideal goal being marriage and procreation. It is considered that sex is an essential human behaviour that needs to be satisfied but properly and lawfully.
Islam prohibits any deprivation of human behaviour – looks at the proper (legal) use of sex as an act of worship (Ibadah). The Hadith contains quotes that relate to the sexual practice and correct application of Allah’s gift of sexuality. “They are your garments and you are their garments. ” (2. 187) the metaphor of the garment is a very powerful one as it brings home the message. It creates in the mind a picture of the relationship needed for a happy and healthy marriage. Clothes are a basic necessity for humans. They are used for warmth as well as beauty.
Sex is the ultimate expression of love and is total physical and emotional encounter. The ethical teachings that surrounds Islamic life, are determined by the Al’ Qur’an, the sacred writing brought by the last prophet Muhammad word by word from the Islamic god Allah. This sacred writing is taught through the 114 Sura’s (chapters) of the Al’ Qur’an. The Hadith, second to the Qur’an in importance and authority, are collections of Islamic traditions and laws (Sunnah). The Sharia refers to how Muslims should live or the path they must follow.
This includes traditional sayings of Muhammad. Fiqh” Arabic for the world Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic Law based on the Qur’an and Sunnah, it complements Sharia with evolving rulings and interpretations of Islamic Jurists. The Fiqh deals with the observance of the rituals, morals and social obligations. (Jurisprudence) states that you must surrender to the will of Allah; it is the most fundamental Islamic value. A Muslim must try ones hardest to establish good according to the order fixed by Allah because each person is God’s agent on earth and has responsibility to Allah, Muhammad’s teachings gives specifics for Marriage and Pre-marital sex.
The ideal goal being marriage and procreation, marriage is a legally binding contractual arrangement (called Nikah), sex outside of marriage is forbidden and seen as an attack on the community as well as a breach of this contract. If a Muslim engages in premarital sex, he/she are seen as not submitting to the will of Allah, very harsh penalties will be advised if this act is carried out. Muslims treat marriage as the norm and whilst celibacy is discouraged, fornication is absolutely condemned; this act can lead to the touching, kissing, or the exposing of their bodies of Islamic people.
The quote below explains how to do this in an acceptable and legal way for Islamic adherence. “Marriage is my tradition. He who rejects my tradition is not of me. Marriage is half of religion. The other half is being God fearing” Qur’an 4:3 In Allah’s rulings, there is no fixed rule as to the age of marriage. It is becoming fashionable for young Muslim men not to marry until they have completed their education, have a job, or reached age 26-30 or more. Similarly young Muslim girls say they want to marry after age 24.
Conversely the teachings of the Qur’an Homosexuality are condemned to all of Islam. The aims of natural sexuality are procreation and homosexuality does not permit this. Islam accepts no justification for the unnatural sin of homosexuality. Punishment is encouraged but not prescribed. The Qur’an has an oblique reference of lesbian behaviour (lutiyya) “And those of your women, who commit legal sexual intercourse, take the evidence of four witnesses from amongst you against them; and if they testify, confine them to houses until death comes to them or Allah ordains for them some other way. ”