Progress in westward expansion (for white Americans) not good for native Americans. The early United States history is a story of progress and conflict in terms of political, territorial, and social advancement. Political: Alien and Sedition Acts- During the Adams administration, congress passed the Alien and Sedation acts to suppress public criticism of the government and limit the freedom of foreigners in the US. Outcry against these acts helped the republican cause. then the rise of democratic politics – between 1820 and 1840, a revolution took place in American Politics.
When property and taxpaying qualifications for voting were repealed, voter participation grew drastically. In turn, the expanded electorate made possible the creation of new national political parties. 2nd party system – increased political participation, economic concerns stemming from the panic of 1819m anxiety over slavery’s expansion, and the ‘corrupt bargain” all contributed to the creation of the second party system. As a result, the modern political system we know today was born.
Election of 1828 – Jackson Democrats were the first to appeal directly for voter support through a professional party organization And, in the end, Jackson’s victory in 1828 was interpreted as a victory for the common man over the rich and well born. with democrats and whigs- Democrats were the Jackson party. They were against interference from the national government and had a powerful base in rural south and west among urban workers in the north. Whigs formed in opposition to Jackson and favored a strong national government and social reform.
They had a powerful base in the industrialized North as well as among some southern planters. which fell apart over issue of slavery expansion- Wilmot’s Provision – Proposing that slavery should be banned from all of the territories acquired from Mexico, this provision ignited an intense debate about the place of slavery in the future of the nation and helped trigger the end of the Second Party System.
Territorial: Louisiana purchase- Doubled the size of the US, which terrified many federalists who feared that the creation of new western states would further eaken the political influence of the northeast. Tecumsen and Tenskwatawa – Calling for a return to traditional Native American practices, these brothers created a powerful pan-indian military movement and eventually allied with the British in order to stop Anglo-American expansion War of 1812 – The war of 1812 effectively destroyed the ability of the Native Americans to resist American Expansion east of the Mississippi and it convinced Americans that they could now fend off European threats.
Missouri compromise – The Mississippi compromise, which represents the nation’s first extended debate over slavery’s expansion, preserved sectional balance and prohibited the formation of slave states north of the Mississippi compromise line. Indian removal act – Passed in 1830, this act forced Native Americans to leave their tribal lands and settle on federal lands to the west of the Mississippi River. manifest destiny. – “Manifest Destiny”, the commonly-held belief that God had chosen Anglo-Americans to expand westward, was in reality a racial, economic, and political justification for aggressive territorial expansion.
But with the US War with Mexico came great debate over whether slavery should continue to exist expanding. – This war bitterly divided American public opinion, greatly expanded the nations borders, initiated a legacy of conquest throughout the southwest, and set the stage for civil war. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – According to this treaty, Mexico surrendered its northern provinces of California and New Mexico to the US and accepted the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas in return for $15 million.
Social: Slavery was a large part of American society as a result of king cotton. – Demand for cotton was a result of the industrialized revolution. And, by the civil war, cotton accounted for almost 60% of American exports. Pro-slavery Arguments – In their defense of slavery, Southerners argued that the institution was essential for the nations economy, that it was sanctioned by the bible, that blacks were racially inferior and better off enslaved, and that slaves received excellent care and protection compared to factory workers in the north.
Slave Resistance – Wielding power within a system designed to render them powerless, slaves resisted the institution of slavery in a variety of ways. Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Nat Turner’s slave rebellion resulted in the deaths of 55 white people and instilled intense fear among slave owners for years to come. Abolition Movement – Abolitionists argued that slavery was immoral, illegal, NS violation of the principles of natural rights of life and liberty embodied in the Declaration of Independence.
Wilmot’s Provision – Proposing that slavery should be banned from all of the territories acquired from Mexico, this provision ignited an intense debate about the place of slavery in the future of the nation and helped trigger the end of the Second Party System. Compromise of 1850 – Which adopted the doctrine of popular sovereignty in the west and enacted a controversial fugitive slave law, only temporarily settled the question of slavery in the territories.
Kansas-Nebraska Act – As a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, antislavery Northerners and proslavery Southerners clashed in Kansas and popular sovereignty quickly degenerated into warfare. Election of 1860 – The election of 1860 was perhaps the most divisive in American history, And, as a result of Lincoln’s election, southern states began withdrawing from the union. Only through the Civil War that slavery eventually abolished –Though the Civil War started as an effort to maintain the union, it evolved into a war for the liberation of slaves.
Indeed, slavery, as a political, economic and moral issue, was the root cause of the war. Emancipation Proclamation – Free only those slaves living in states not under the union control. Nevertheless, the proclamation allowed black soldiers to fight for the union and transformed union forced into an arm of liberation. with the 13th Amendment – Realizing that the Emancipation Proclamation could be reverses by future legislation, Lincoln won congressional approval of the 13th Amendment, which finally abolished slaver in the United States.