The aim of the report is to collect relevant information about the Iranian nuclear program on various aspects. The comprehensive approach associated with the paper analyzes the topic from the first point. The concerns that are addressed in the paper are the main reasons behind the initiation of the Iranian Nuclear program, the consequences (sanctions) Iran is facing due to its nuclear program, the achievement of the program in terms of nuclear capabilities, the present status of the program, and the apprehensions about the security of the entire Gulf region. These issues have been addressed briefly in the report and if elaborated further can prove to be an all-inclusive study on the issue.
Origin of Iran’s nuclear program
Iran initiated its nuclear program under the regime of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in 1967 when it acquired a US built five-megawatt research reactor which received strong support from the western countries. In 1989, Iran declared that it Uranium deposits were revealed near Saghand, and it planned to commence the mining activities by the end of 1990, which will be later on pursued by the enrichment activities.
Reasons for Iran developing nuclear capabilities
The balance of power analysis as the reason behind Iran’s pursuing nuclear program is one of the powerful considerations on the subject. The second analysis is upon the individuals that are responsible for Iran’s countervailing the country’s nuclear myths, one idealizing the issue as nuclear security, and the other one as nuclear insecurity. The third analysis is about the Bureaucratic politics, which refers to a sub-national model of policy formation to establish state policy consistent with their own close-minded benefits.
The Present Nuclear Dilemma
Equipped with nuclear capacity, Iran could unintentionally promote similar efforts by its neighbors that range from Egypt to Turkey and Saudi Arabia, which will ultimately lead to situations that can be a major blow to region’s NPT status. The lethal combination of Iran’s recently developed longer-range missile and nuclear capacity could be a threat to Israel, while if there occurs a U.S. or Israeli strike to avert progress of the nuclear facility, this could further lead to a deadly retaliation by Tehran in a range of asymmetric or non-traditional ways.
With a radical revolutionary concept base, Iran has proved to me much more than a nation state. As per the constitution of Iran states that the duty of the people is not only protect the state but also spread ideological mission of jihad around the world. This ideological mission of Iran will definitely prove dangerous to the world at some time or the other. Imposition of uranium related activities by Iran is the only solution to the initiation of dialogues between US and Iran has further suspends the possibility of any positive outcomes, thereby forcing Iran to declare its clear intent to move forward with its nuclear program irrespective of U.S. and international demands.
Pursuing its nuclear capability, Iran wishes to become a global player on the world scene. Definitely, Iran is a grave and rising confrontation to US peacekeeping activities and the matter may possibly finish up defining the US administration as much as Iraq.
Diplomatic Initiatives/Efforts to Diffuse the Tension
This section purses some diplomatic efforts that appear to be most viable for diffusing the tension due to the current Iranian nuclear situation.
• Decrease the oratory speeches that occur from both sides with the aim of offering a stage for positive and productive dialog among all concerned parties.
• reinstate the Iranian-US association and generate a nonstop communication connection between the two for a parallel dialogue.
United Nations and Its Efforts on the Iran Nuclear Issue
The Resolution 1696 allows the UNSC to exercise its control to require Iran, to follow all transparency measures as required by the IAEA. In principle Iran could even be required to surrender to unexpected snap examination, as well as if in case IAEA demands to visit Iranian nuclear sites and other facilities, get hold of documents or consultations with individuals which are at this time not subject to safeguard rules laid down by the IAEA.
2. The Impact of the Program on the Gulf
As per the report, “The Middle East is a focal point for global risk and its mitigation. This is particularly clear with geopolitical risk—with a high concentration of destabilizing geopolitical events having their origin in the wider Middle Eastern Region.” The report specifically points out the growing number of security risks to the whole world that arise from this very region. It is considerably alarming to see the region slip into a climate of tension and political instability that can impact the world-wide energy market and global economy.
There is a likelihood that a regional alliance in the Middle East will come into being under the leadership of a nuclear Iran. It is widely agreed that there is no efficient army in the region barring Israel. Traditionally military forces in the region have been kept weak and inefficient by the leadership for a very important reason. Regimes in power were insecure and did not want their army to stage a military coup against them.
The political climate post Iraqi invasion has worked to Iran’s advantage. This is another reason for the current uncertainty in the region. Iran’s long awaited ambition to become the region’s most powerful military and political power has come true.
GCC and Its Views Regarding the Nuclear Program of Iran
The six GCC states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and UAE) along with the other Arab nations have raised a call for declaring the whole Middle East as a Nuclear Free Zone. The nuclear program of Iran has raised fresh alarm for the GCC, from the year 2002-03, since evidence was unearthed that led to a probable military ramification of such a nuclear program. GCC states fear that their security, both sovereign and regional would be seriously threatened by Iran’s nuclear program since it would upset political balance in the Gulf region.
The probable impact of Iran’s nuclear program on the security of Middle East
Faced with the possibility of an Iran that has nuclear capability, nations of the Middle East are exploring possible ways to protect themselves and boost up their own security. No evidence has been found that confirms that Iran has acquired nuclear war-power, but the clandestine nature of its nuclear program has alarmed its neighbors.
Tehran is adamant in continuing with its program of uranium enrichment, paying no heed to the reactions of UN and the international community, and this has alarmed the other Gulf countries. These countries do not fear any hostility from a nuclear Iran, but are more concerned about having to face the repercussions of an increasingly alarmed international community that may attack Iran to stop its nuclear ambitions, thereby compromising the security of the region.
American reaction to the impact of the program in the Gulf stability
The main strategy being adopted by the U.S. government to stop Iran is by achieving a consensus with its main allies in the Middle East, Asia and Europe. It has learnt a lot from its experience in Iraq, and now U.S. government is investing a lot of effort to arrive at a consensus with its international allies in assessing the threat status of Iran’s nuclear program. It has been opined that perhaps the United States would bargain with or offer incentives to Iran. As United States government’s agreements with Libya have shown, U.S. is not averse to offering such incentives to governments it had previously conducted wars on. The quality of the bargain/incentive is co-related with the actions taken by the other country.