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May 23, 2013

In order to properly address the Infrastructure upgrade of the Kamazon Network our group decided that an appropriate ip address schema that will take into account the idea that people will be using more than just a desktop computer. They will have tablets, laptops, departmental printers, and smart phones. This is also based upon the understanding that every Department will have at least two printers for the staff and one for the Manager/Supervisor or VP of that Department. So with that being said, we estimated that could be at least three or more accurately four ip addresses per employee. So we multiplied the number of users per department by the number of estimated devices that each employee will be using.

With the rationale in mind of estimating that there would be at least 4 possible devices per user, plus three possible printers per department, and the addition of a Wireless Access Point on the Management floor, network hardware which should include the printers we previously mentioned, one router for the LAN and WAN connections, a wireless access point, 12 printers for the entire organizations printing needs, and 5 servers We determined that there had to be one File and Print server, A Directory server that is also running DNS and DHCP, an E-commerce/Database server, a Web Proxy server and a Web server. It is understood that these servers are not part of the project plan per se, but by establishing an entirely new ip address schema we must address the number of servers so we can accurately determine the number of needed addresses.

We also would also need ip addresses on the edge switches for each floor by creating 6 VLANS on the 48 port switch in the basement not to mention two firewall appliances that will create the companies DMZ. A VLAN also called a Virtual LAN is a Group of devices connected to one or more LANs that are configured (using management software) so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same wire, when in fact they are located on a number of different LAN segments.

VLANs are based on logical connections instead of physical connections, so due to this fact they are extremely flexible, and cost efficient (CISCO Systems). So for the network hardware we estimated that there could be at least 30 devices that would need ip addresses. Having obtained a more concrete picture of the organizations current infrastructure we quickly realized that we were not only going to need a lot more addresses to meet the immediate need, but there also had to be a great deal more subnets and IP addresses per subnet to address the need for the future growth of the organization.

The IP address schema that is currently in use was not given for the project, but as it stands the only other schema they could have possibly used would have to be the default for the class C network. If that is the case then I am sure that there were many issues as it pertains to network addressing. So here are the following estimates that we came up with to address the networking needs of Kamazon.com 1. Human Resources 10 Employees x 4 = 40 ip addresses.

2. Accounting and Finance 14 Employees x 4 = 56 ip addresses. 3. Marketing 37 Employees x 4 =148 ip addresses.
4. Research and Development 23 Employees x 4 = 92 ip addresses. 5. Web Sales and Service 55 Employees x 4 =220 ip addresses. 6. Management 20 Employees x 4 = 80 ip addresses.
7. Information Technologies 20 Employees x 4 = 80 ip addresses. 8. Network Hardware 30 Devices 30 ip addresses
So we determined based upon these numbers that we would need 746 definitive ip addresses divided amongst eight subnets for the eight departments. So we chose to use the address as a starting point the logical network upgrade. We first broke the default subnet for a Class C address down to binary, then we borrowed one bit from the third octet so that our class “C” Network would now be addressed as a class “B” network by using CIDR notation. If we break out the third octet displaying the binary values for each bit space this is how it would be displayed. 128 | 64 | 32 | 16 | 8 | 4 | 2 | 1

This is our class C after applying CIDR notation.
128 | 64 | 32 | 16 | 8 | 4 | 2 / 0 = 254By borrowing the one bit we have changed our subnet mask from to The next step is to determine what our Network ID’s will be, and what our usable hosts will be. This is done by going back to the binary. There are 8 bits in each octet which is in base 2 the numerical value of the binary numbers. This is equal to 28 or 256. When we borrow the one bit from the third octet we are now adding that one bit to the original eight this changes our binary value from 8 bits to 9 bits which is equal to 29 or 512. This means that we will now have 512 IP Addresses per subnet, and if we apply the formula 2n-2 this will give us 510 usable hosts per subnet. We can then take this same formula without the minus 2 to calculate the number of subnets that we will obtain from this calculation. There are still seven “on” bits to the left in this octet. This is equal to 27 or 128. This means that will obtain 128 subnets with this CIDR calculation.

This is the default C before we borrowed the one bit in binary notation, Before11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
255 . 255 . 255 . 0
This is the class C after we borrowed the one bit in binary notation, After 11111111.11111111.1111111/0.00000000
255 .255 . 254 . 0

So by using the subnet mask of or new ip address in CIDR Notation will be So now having completed these calculations we needed to start building our networks. How this was done was a method that our group agreed upon. You don’t have to use this method, and I am not implying in any way that this is the best way. You may use any method you wish, but we have found this method to be the fastest way to figure out how to address a network after applying CIDR. I mean what good are the equations and the borrowing of bits if you don’t know how to use it in a real network? So how we began was to look at the bit that we borrowed and then move one digit to the left. In subnetting you should always move to the left as opposed to supernetting where you go to the right but that is another topic altogether.

This value to the left of our bit represents a 2 (remember this 2) in binary so we take our original address 192.168.x.x, and because we changed the network bit to a host bit we can now use the third octet for our address range. So our first address is, and this is our first network ID. Now remember that 2? We can take that number ‘2’ and begin counting our network ID’s and they will ascend in value by 2, i.e.,,, and so forth see the table below.

Table 1
Network ID
1st Available Host
Last available Host
Broadcast Address
Network Hardware
W/S & Svc

So by doing this we were able to address the eight needed subnets for Kamazon and we obtained an additional 120 Subnets with 510 nodes per subnet for future expansion. I have place below in a table the full List of networks that we obtained using this schema. I felt it was good for the sake of illustration just how many addresses we have obtained for the network with the subnet mask All of the networks that are listed in Blue are the ip addresses that we are using. So with this addressing schema I felt that it was the best we could offer Kamazon so they could have future expansion and enough addresses to fulfill their needs. The only drawback with this configuration is if for some reason Kamazon doesn’t grow as the Management staff hopes that they do we will have wasted a great deal of addresses, Only time will tell. Table 2

Broadcast Address


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