A. Background of the Study
More people used to collect seashells for fun and for past time. They made decorations, jewelries and even accessories for a doll out of it. But don’t you know that aside from those things, seashell can also made into a much useful thing. We, the researchers are aware that education is the most powerful key for us to succeed. And to support this, we need some facilities and materials for us to make it easier and clearer. Of course, we know that we already have some modernized equipments, but still, for those hopeless countries and people who also want to be sent in school, even a worst facility matters. We, the researchers already have whiteboards that just need markers and projectors as the most modernized. But still, the origin of those is just a simple blackboard and a piece of chalk. So, we, the researchers, made some trials and errors from different raw materials to be made into a more durable chalk until to that moment that we have agreed and succeed in one of our trials, to make a chalk out of seashells.
B. Statement of the Problem
The price of almost all commercialized or local products continuously increasing and this is a big aspect to be considered in schooling. Some of the schools don’t have enough support from government and this thing bring difficulties for us students.
C. Significance of the Study
This study opens another way for us people to be able to save and make chalks that is much durable with long-lasting use that will take part in our study. The study was conducted as a remedy for the common problem of spending much
in, and it also helps us to gain money when you make this as your business affair. We can also make some raw materials that we thought to be useless, transformed into a much useful and improved thing. D. Scope and Limitation
This study is focused on designing and producing alternative chalks. It also deals with the assessment of its actual advantages as compared to some commercialized one. The qualities and quantities data obtained in the testing of the product against the control were limited to 3 tests only.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
A seashell is the common name for a hard, protective outer layer, a shell, or in some cases a “test”, that was created by a sea creature, a marine organism. The shell is part of the body of a marine animal, in most cases the exoskeleton, usually that of an animal without a backbone, an invertebrate. The word seashell is often used to refer only to the shells of marine mollusks, i.e. mollusk shells, but it can also be used to mean the shells of a wide variety of marine animals from different phyla. For helpful introductory articles, see marine invertebrates and marine biology. Seashells are commonly found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are very often washed up onto a beach empty and clean, the animal having already died, and the soft parts having rotted away or having been eaten by either predators or scavengers.
Empty seashells are often found by beachcombers, and collecting these shells is a harmless hobby or study. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive (often in bulk) and then killed and cleaned, specifically for the commercial trade. This type of exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on the distribution of rarer species, and on local ecosystems.
Many other kinds of sea animals have exoskeletons or shells which may, after death, wash up on the beach and may be picked up by beachcombers; these include remains from species in other invertebrate phyla, such as the molted shells or exuviate of crabs and lobsters, the shells of barnacles, horseshoe crab shells, sea urchin and sand dollar tests, brachiopod shells, and the shells of marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae, which create calcareous tubes. B. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Some people considered seashell as useless in terms of reasonable things. And because of our research, this belief will now be changed to a bright side. For us, the researchers will prove that seashells are not useless but are significant ones. C. HYPOTHESES
1.) There is significance difference between our products, chalk from sea shells and the leading commercial one. 2.) There is significance difference between experimental chalk from sea shells and commercial one in terms of quality and durability. D. DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.) Seashells – is a hard, rigid outer layer, which has evolved in a very wide variety of different animals, including mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans, turtles and tortoises, armadillos, etc. Scientific names for this type of structureinclude exoskeleton, armour, test, carapace, and peltidium.
2.) Cassava – A shrubby tropical American plant (Manihot esculenta) widely grown for its large, tuberous, starchy roots. The root of this plant, eaten as a staple food in the tropics only after leaching and drying to remove cyanide. Cassava starch is also the source of tapioca.
A. Equipment and Materials
Mortar and pestle
1. Collect sea shells from the sea shore or left-over shell viands, and cassava. 2. Pulverized the shells until it becomes fine as powder and set aside in a container. 3. Grate the cassava and squeeze its juice using cloth. Separate the liquid from its residue. 4. Mix the residue of the extracted cassava and the pulverized seashells. Add a small amount of water at the right ratio of the quantity of the mixture. 5. Mold the mixture into different shapes and sizes according to your desire. 6. Place it under the sun and wait until it dries up and is ready to be used. C. Data-gathering Instrument
The physical characteristics of the chalk from sea shells was observed and compared to the chalk that was commercially processed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A. Data and Findings
Table1. Physical Characteristics of the Chalk made from seashells.
Table 1 shows the Physical characteristics of the experimental and commercial chalk. It shows that they have different characteristics in terms of hardness but are both rough in terms of its texture.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The research was designed by crushing the seashells, which is the main source of the product, and which it can be a useful and eco-friendly product and can contribute excellently to our sobbing community. Through hard research, we, the researchers studied the characteristics of the main source, which is seashell, and we analyzed that It can be a great specimen in our investigatory project. We have done several experiments which lead the researchers into a victorious ending in the said project. Conclusion
On the experiment conducted to produce a fine product from seashell, we, the researchers discovered the characteristics of the seashells which have specific properties and structures. We discovered that it is one of the stepping stones of the success of the product in which it is commercially comparable to any commercial products that are the same with us, if there are any, in terms of quality and durability. Recommendation
Through hard, decisive, several experiments, the researchers have conquered an amazing product that has a good quality. We highly recommend using our own original finished product, made from seashells, because aside from its cheapness, it is also easier to produce, eco-friendly, recyclable and has the potential to make our study easier and clearer.