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Investigatory Project Essay

INTRODUCTION

Objectives:
To minimize the escalation of the insect in our place.

To promote a natural way of minimizing the escalation of insects. To use natural insect repellant instead of chemical insect repellants like aerosols. To be able to substitute chemical insect repellants which threat human health from natural insect repellants. To be able to determine the effect of the Cacao leaves extract on insects like mosquitos. To be able of producing an effective insect repellent out of Cacao leaves. To be able to make use of natural resources found in our country to solve common problems caused by insects like malaria and dengue. To identify adverse reaction of the decoction during the course of treatment.

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CHAPTER 2: Review of Related Literature
Foreign
“Repellent and insecticidal effects of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes to Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).” By: Zhang N, Tang L, Hu W, Wang K, Zhou Y, Li H, Huang C, Chun J, Zhang Z.

The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and repellent and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga L. rhizomes against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal or repellent constituents from the oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight components of the oil were identified. The major compounds in the oil were ethyl-rho-methoxycinnamate (38.6%), ethyl cinnamate (23.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.5%), trans-cinnamaldehyde (5.3%), and borneol (5.2%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, four active constituents were isolated from the oil and identified as 1,8-cineole, ethyl cinnamate, ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against the booklouse with an LC50 value of 68.6 microg/cm2.

Ethyl cinnamate (LC50 = 21.4 microg/cm2) exhibited stronger contact toxicity than ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 44.6 and 43.4 microg/cm2, respectively) while 1,8-cineole showed weak acute toxicity. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against the booklouse with a LC50 value of 1.5 mg/liter air. 1,8-Cineole and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 1.1 and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively) possessed stronger fumigant toxicity against the booklouse than ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate (LC50 = 10.2 and 10.2 mg/liter air, respectively). trans-Cinnamaldehyde was strongly repellent to booklice, whereas ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate were weakly repellent and 1,8-cineole did not repel booklice. The results indicate that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants and repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

“Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (hymenoptera: formicidae).” By: Zhang N, Tang L, Hu W, Wang K, Zhou Y, Li H, Huang C, Chun J, Zhang Z.

In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and l(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and l(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure.

In the fumigant test, cineole and d-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and l(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and l(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg.

Local
“Larvicidal Effect of Madre de Cacao Leaf Extract (Gliricidia sepium) on Mosquito Larvae (Culex pipiens).”
By :
Ma. Chzarmyn T. Antonio
Aina Rie M. Antoy
Jances M. Lumogda

This experimental research was conducted to determine the level of effectiveness of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) leaf extract as a larvicide for household mosquitoes (Culex pipiens). It further looked into whether there is no significant difference in the level of effectiveness of Madre de cacao leaf extract as larvicide at different concentrations. A total of 555 household mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens) were cultured and treated with Madre de Cacao leaf extract. There were five treatments used which include 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 % of Madre de Cacao leaf extract. The Mean was used to determine the level of effectiveness of Madre de Cacao leaf extract as larvicide described as less effective, moderately effective, effective and very effective. The ANOVA

was used to determine the significant difference in the level of effectiveness of different concentrations of Madre de Cacao on household mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens) set at 0.01 level of significance. The study showed that 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of extract were found to be very effective in killing household mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens) while 25% concentration of the extract came out only as effective. There was a significant difference in the level of effectiveness of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) leaf extract as larvicide to household mosquitoes between 25% concentration and 50%, 75%, and 100% concentration while there was no significant difference in the level of effectiveness of Madre de Cacao leaf extract as larvicide when 50%, 75%, and 100% concentration were used.

From the results of the study, Madre de cacao leaf extract can be a potential natural larvicide on mosquitoes and can be an alternative substitute to commercial mosquito pesticide. The researchers recommend the use of Madre de cacao leaf extract as an alternative natural larvicide on household mosquitoes to reduce the side effect of using commercial pesticides especially on places where the plant grows abundantly and to wet places prone to mosquitoes. Further research is recommended on other potential use of Madre de Cacao aside from its larvicidal effect.

“Citronella is the most common natural ingredient used in formulating natural mosquito” A common sight on backyard decks everywhere, citronella candles, with their clean, fresh fragrance, are said to repel mosquitoes. The oil found in these candles is derived from Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus), a plant native to southeast Asia and grown commercially in Sri Lanka, India, Burma, Indonesia and Java. Naturalized in tropical Asia, the plant is also grown as an ornamental in south Florida and southern California. Citronella is a perennial ‘clumping’ grass which grows to a height of five to six feet. It can be grown directly in the ground in any climate where frost does not occur and it flourishes when receiving direct sunlight. In northern climate zones, people often grow citronella in a large pots that they bring indoors for winter.

Inexpensive soaps sold in Asian markets are scented with citronella oil, which is often used as one of the ‘essential oils’ in aroma therapy. Practitioners claim it is a stimulant when inhaled or rubbed on the skin, and an antiseptic that can also be used to sterilize food preparation surfaces. Used as an ingredient for many meals, Indonesians often plant it at the corner of their house so that they can easily reach it when cooking. Although some reports suggest citronella grass repels cats, the most popular belief is that it is a natural mosquito repellent. “Antimicrobial property study of madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium. Leaf extract using ethyl alcohol and water as extracting media”

Senior students of IV – ESEP, LNNCHS conducted a study entitled “Antimicrobial property study of madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium Jacq.) leaf extract using ethyl alcohol and water as extracting media. The investigation was based on the diameters of their clearing zones. The samples were taken from the same locality and the experiment was done at the LNNCHS laboratory room. Mongo leaves extract were used as the control in this study.

Analysis showed that madre de cacao leaf extract using using ethyl alcohol and water as extracting media have no significant difference as the control since both failed to inhibit Escherichia coli (test organism) as shown in the tabulated results by the zero diameters of clearing zones around the filter paper disc, which were done in three trials. Since the results were negative and due to time constraints, the following were recorded to a tabulated form and the following recommendations were suggested to the future researchers: the use of bacteria other than E. coli, the use of other extracting medium available in the laboratory, and the use of other plant leaves which have potential antimicrobial property.

“A STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF Gliricidia sepium (madre de cacao) DECOCTION ON THE TREATMENT OF SCABIES” By:Arjay Alejandro Lao Gliricidia sepium, locally known as “kakawati,” or “madre de cacao” in Titay, is a tropical plant that has been used for the past years to effectively treat several diseases like dermatophytic infections and gonorrhea. It is known as “madre de cacao” or “kakawate” in Titay. Accordingly, they used this madre de cacao as treatment for common skin diseases like scabies and skin diseases in animals like pigs. Its decoction is used to relieve cough. Its extract is used to treat wound and toothache. Its leaves is used for insect repellant, botanical pesticides and fertilizers, as pain reliever from backache, sprains and fractures and even for STD’s like gonorrhea.

In the Out Patient Department (OPD) setting of Rural Health Unit (RHU) in Titay, two (2) patients per day that seek consult is clinically diagnosed of scabies. As surveyed by the researcher, this scabies is known as “ngisi-ngisi”, “kurikong” or “kagid” in Titay. It is known as “ngisi-ngisi” because children tend to have facial grimace mistaken for a smile due to the itchiness of the scabies during scratching. In Titay, scabies is treated by using the decoction of madre de cacao preparation to wash part of the body that is infested with scabies. Furthermore, this has been used in the community and has been shown to result in clinical resolution of the disease after 6 to 7 days of treatment. In this light, Gliricidia sepium offers a promising treatment option as being used by the local residents of Titay.

Cacao leaves as pesticide
By Danny O. Calleja

Marilyn Sta. Catalina, the regional executive director of the DA Regional Field Unit (RFU) for Bicol based here on Tuesday said the discovery was recently confirmed by Dr. Alfredo Rabena, head of the Research and Development Office of the University of Northern Philippines (UNP) who found out that kakawate leaves contain coumarins, an effective botanopesticide. Field demonstrations conducted in several parts of the Ilocos region, Sta. Catalina said proved Rabena’s discovery that the kakawate leaves’ botanopesticide effectively eliminated rice weevils, rice bugs and worms in ricefields. The botanopesticide solution is prepared by way of chopping the kakawate leaves and soaked in water overnight to extract coumarins and using a strainer, the leaves are separated from the solution.

The resulting solution is sprayed to the ricefield and the best time to do it is from eight o’clock to nine o’clock in the morning and from five o’clock to six o’clock in the afternoon. These times, worms and pests are coming out from the leaves making the solution more effective. If applied earlier or later, its effectiveness would not be maximized as pests are still hibernating. Applying the solution under extreme sunlight will also reduce its effectiveness as the pests hide from the heat of the sun. Since kakawate is a legume, Sta. Catalina quoted Rabena as saying, “its leaves are rich in nitrogen, an important soil nutrient. Hence, the discarded leaves can be applied to the field as an organic fertilizer.” It is also recommended that farmers put several leafy branches of kakawate tree in between rice plants two days after planting to prevent pests from attacking the crop, she said. Coumarins in kakawate leaves are also effective termites and bed bugs neutralizer and Rabena presented this finding through his paper “The Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Active Botano Chemicals of Kakawate Leaves Against Termites” that he presented during the 5th International Congress of Plant Molecular Biology in Singapore in 1997.

His study was also included in the book “The International Society for Plant Molecular Biology” published by the National University of Singapore and Institute of Molecular Agrobiology. Kakawate leaves are also effective anti-fungus. It can cure Trichophyton Metagrophytes that causes skin diseases like eczema. Crumple several leaves and apply to affected area of the skin for a salicylic acid-like effect. Rabena, along with Dr. Nelia Aman and Engr. Franklin Amistad also both of UNP, Sta. Catalina said have also discovered lately that the ash of kakawate can be a good concrete mixture for ceramics. Its charcoal is a good moisture and odor absorbent, too.

Kakawate leaves can be used also to deworm pigs. Just have the swine eat ample leaves and the parasites would not live long. When these uses are not enough, the Bicol DA chief said it should be remembered that kakawate’s flowers can be made into salad or into dinengdeng, a delicious Ilokano veggie dish. She encouraged farmers to plant more kakawate trees as its adaptability to any type of soil makes it an ideal tree for those who want to cultivate a plantation of it. It’s perhaps one of the easiest growing plants one could find. It is a leguminous tropical tree that grows mostly in forests and could grow from five to 10 meters tall.

Kakawate defoliates during dry season and flowers at the same time making it odd-looking but beautiful leafless trees with nothing but branches and flowers. The flowers are pea-like with petals that are usually lavender, pink or white. It also bears fruits that look like a leathery pod and seeded. Kakawate is very easy to propagate and inexpensive. The tree could re-sprout very quickly after pruning. Many farmers plant them mainly to shade other perennial crops like cacao, coffee and tea. Aside from this, kakawate could provide a lot of uses to the farmers from its roots to its leaves. Its multipurpose use makes it a good plant crop in agroforestry. Since kakawate is a legume, it is useful for fixing nitrogen in the soil, thus improving soil quality and increasing crop yields. Kakawate has strong roots. It stabilizes sloping lands and reduces soil erosion. Its wood could be used as firewood, hedges, and fencing field.

The leaves are rich in nitrogen and other nutrients suitable for green manure and fodder to farm animals. This legume is also popular to the rural folks as a ripening agent for their harvested banana. Most farmers are not aware that this plant can be utilized as fertilizer to lessen their farm inputs. Application of organic materials is a good agricultural practice to maintain soil nutrient level and ameliorate the properties of soil to sustain crop production. Many organic materials contain secondary nutrients and micronutrients in addition to organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

Nonilon Badayos of the Department of Soil Science and Dr. Gina Pangga of Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute, both of the University of the Philippines-Los Baños tested the potential of kakawate as bio-organic fertilizer in an earlier study for eggplant production in Laguna. The experiment sought to evaluate the effect of kakawate on the growth performance and yield of eggplants and on the soils physical and chemical properties. Observations revealed that the eggplants fertilized with 50 percent inorganic fertilizer plus 50 percent kakawate were the most vigorous – growth rate was faster and the fruits were heavier than the other treatments.

Chapter 3: Methodology

Common names: Kakawate, Madriado, Madre de cacao
Scientific name: Gliricidia sepium
Family: Leguminosae
Uses of cocoa ; jams and chocolate are made from it, an oil named cocoa butter can be extracted from it, natural insect repellent.

Madre de cacao is a nitrogen-fixing tree. In some areas, it is referred to as a quick-stick due to its characteristic of growing almost right away just by cutting it and directly planting it in the ground. It is a fast growing tree with a maturity height of 10 meters (33 feet). It is adaptable to almost any soil environment, including infertile soils. It is tolerant to salt spray and water logging. It can tolerate drought for up to 6 to 8 months. This tree can be potentially weedy, but rarely causes a problem. Its ubiquitous characteristic makes it a good alternative for feeds due to its availability in almost all areas in the country

There are many methods of control that can be implemented to reduce the number of mosquitoes. Local councils may use commercial larvicides (pesticides that kill the larvae) which prevent mosquitoes from maturing to adults. In an effort to help the government combat the disease and eradicate mosquito carrier, the researchers determined the effect of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) leaf extract on mosquito larvae. Studies have shown that the plant Madre de Cacao is an insect repellant and has the ability to kill many insects which can become potential carrier of many diseases. At present there is still a wide use of commercial and synthetic chemicals to destroy pests which are potential carriers and are expensive. The researchers are aware of the risk of high toxic chemical compounds and become interested in using natural pesticides derive from plants as a means of destroying pests hence the conduct of this study.

A study done by Alfredo Rabena, a full-time professor at the University of Northern Philippines in Vigan City, found that kakawati leaves are good source of coumarins, a toxic substance that can kill almost all types of pests and insects. Rabena said one kilogram of kakawati leaves, soaked in water overnight, can produce seven gallons of “botanopesticides” (botanical pesticides). “The more leaves the more concentrate the pesticide is,” he said. Rabena said he conducted the study in 1996 in collaboration with a Malaysian chemist, Dr. Nordin Lajiz, at the University of the Philippines in Los Baños, Laguna. “The three-year study found botanopesticides as effective pest control,” he said, adding the technology is being used by rice and vegetable farmers in eight municipalities in Ilocos Sur. Business ( Article MRec ), pagematch: 1, sectionmatch: 1

Rabena said he wants to provide Filipino farmers an alternative to commercial pesticide to lessen the cost of production. He said the kakawati plant is endemic to tropical countries such as the Philippines. Meanwhile, Rabena appealed for a P5 million-research grant from the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) to further study the potential of kakawati leaves as an anticoagulant drug. According to research, anticoagulant drugs are given to patients to prevent blood clots from forming after the replacement of a heart valve or to reduce the risk of a stroke or another heart attack after a first heart attack.

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