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Investigatory Project Essay

Soil is a complex mixture of inorganic materials with variable amounts of air and water. The inorganic materials includes clay, silt, sand, gravel and rocks. Soil is a variable mixture of minerals, inorganic matter, and water, making it capable of supporting plant life. But as the time passes by, problems arise in relevance to soil utilization such as erosion, floods, landslides and earthquake. So, the study of soil has been done by the land use planners to evaluate natural hazards and the soil capability through waste management, appropriateness for agriculture, wildlife, and for infrastructure. In India, Soil Erosion is among the leading areas of concern of the government. It affects cultivation and farming in the country in adverse and unfavorable ways. Soil erosion leads to deprivation of physical characteristics of soils and damages plants and crops. In India almost 130 million hectares of lands, that is 45% of total geographical surface area, is affected by serious soil erosion through gorge and gully, shifting cultivation, cultivated wastelands, sandy area, desserts, and water logging.

Soil erosion by rain and rivers that takes place in hilly areas causes severe landslides and floods while cutting trees for agricultural implements, firewood and timber grazing by a large number of livestock ones and above the carrying capacity of grass lands, traditional agricultural practices, construction of roads, indiscriminate quarrying and other activities, have all led to the opening of hill-faces to extreme soil erosion. Soil erosion and desertification in the Philippines is greatly impacting the nation. 100 years ago at least 95% of the country was covered by lush rain forest. Over 15 years, from 1990 to 2005 the Philippines lost one third of its forest due to relentless logging. Although the desertification rate has dropped from 20% in the 1990’s to now a small percentage of two. Inhabitants of the Philippines have been around four thousand of years end with hundreds and hundreds of years of destructive agriculture.

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