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Interpreting and Translation Essay

The Similarity and Differences between Translation and Interpreting 1. Similarity • Both transferring the message from Source Language (SL) into Target Language (TL) • Both retaining the message • Both restructuring or reproducing • Both having SLT and TLT • Both having the target audience 2. Differences.

|Translation |Interpreting | |The medium is in written form |The medium is in oral form | |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: |In reproducing the translation in the receptor language: | |not on the spot |on the spot | |can use dictionaries or thesaurus |direct translation (being able to translate in both directions, | |have more time to check and recheck the translation |without the use of any dictionaries) | | |have no time to check and recheck the translation) | |The doer : translator |The doer : Interpreter | The Theory.

Interpreting consists of presenting in the Receptor Language, the exact message of what is uttered in the Source Language either simultaneously or consecutively preserving the tone of the speaker, such as formal and informal expressions, emotions, feelings, the choice of words, high and low pitch or tone in uttering words, etc. The Process of Interpreting There are 4 elements involve in the process of interpreting: • the speaker • the audience • the message • the interpreter The Process: (in TL) Messagesmessages… (in SL) (1) (2)(3) (4).

(1) Listening and understanding a spoken message of the Source Language ( (2) Storing/note-taking the message ( (3) Retrieving the message ( (4) Reproducing the message of the source language into the receptor language. Modes of Interpreting 1. Simultaneous Interpreting In simultaneous interpreting, the speaker and the interpreter speak almost at the same time. 2. Consecutive Interpreting In consecutive interpreting, the speaker speaks first, then after he/she finish his/her complete segment/speech, the interpreter takes the turn.

Generally, during consecutive interpreting the speaker stops every 3-5 minutes (usually at the end of every “paragraph” or a complete thought) and the interpreter then steps in to transfer what was said into the receptor language. Model of Communication Flow in Consecutive Interpreting INTERPRETER SPEAKERAUDIENCE : indirect communication : direct communication Qualifications of a Good Interpreter • An interpreter has to have knowledge of the general subject of the speeches that are to be interpreted.

• An interpreter has to have general erudition and intimate familiarity with both cultures. For example: when a speaker talks about American agriculture, then the interpreter has to know about American agriculture. • An interpreter has to have extensive vocabulary in both languages (SL and RL). • An interpreter has to have the ability to express thoughts clearly (easily to understand) and concisely (in brief) in both languages. • An interpreter has to have an excellent note taking technique for consecutive interpreting.

• An interpreter at least 2-3 years of booth experience for simultaneous interpreting. In addition, in note taking of a paragraph uttered by a speaker, an interpreter has to be able to grab the main idea/topic of that paragraph. Therefore, the interpreter will understand what the paragraph that the speaker talks about. The Competencies Required for an Interpreter • Language Competence A language competence is a good command of the source language and the receptor language which includes: ? Lexicon ? Grammatical structure ? Pronunciation • Transfer Competence?

Ability to reproduce a variety of synonymous or analogous expressions in both language; ? Ability to capture and reproduce register variations; ? Ability to recognize and reproduce domain-specific expressions in a form which will be regarded as ‘natural’ by the respective users; ? Ability to combine verbal and non-verbal communication cues from the SL and reproduce them in appropriate combinations in the RL; ? Ability to identify and exploit rhythm and tone patterns of languages in order to determine and utilize the ‘chunks’ of speech so as to maximize the efficiency of the interpreting; ?

Ability to speedily analyze the utterance in the context of the communication in order to anticipate the direction in which the argument is proceeding and the strategy being used in developing the argument. • Cultural Competence ? The possession of knowledge enabling the interpreter to comprehend the totality of the communicative intent of the speaker; ? Extra-linguistic knowledge about the world of the speaker and the audience; ? Social conventions, institutional practices, taboos, anthropologically and historically relevant elements of the cultures.

• Appropriate Technique ? Knowledge of the dynamic communication: < Control of the speed; < Control of the congruence of the tone of voice due to the emotional charge of the utterance and that of the interpretation of the utterance. ? Note-taking to avoid omission: < Interpreter’s notes are very different from those of, say, a stenographer, because writing down words in the source language makes the interpreter’s job harder when he has to translate the speech into the target language.

< Many professional interpreters develop their own “ideogramic” symbology, which allows them to take down not the words, but the thoughts of the speaker in a sort of language-independent form. Then the interpreter’s output is more idiomatic and less source-language bound. ? Ordering information output; ? Voice production (audible, clear, unambiguous); • Good Short Term Memory ? The comprehension ability to store information; ? The ability to recall with a high degree of accuracy what the speaker has said. • Professional Competence?

The ability to make independent judgments in terms of the linguistic, ethical, socio-cultural and effective issues which arise in an interpreted situation. The Skills Required for the Interpreter • Listening skill: being able to ‘get the message’; • Speaking skill: being able to ‘transmit the message’ (quality of voice, choice of idiom, vocabulary, phrasing, etc. ); Interpreting Ethics • Impartiality: to carry out professional duties to the best of his/her ability regardless of who the clients are in terms of race, social and economic status, ethnicity, etc. In other words, the interpreter has to be fair and not taking side.

• Conflict of interest means to act without regard to other interests such as personal or financial gain. Things that Have to be Prepared in Becoming an Interpreter • Be familiar with the subject of the conference and the subjects of speeches; • Try to speak with the speaker and find out the general contents of speech and the time s/he intends to dedicate to the speech; • Find copies of overhead transparencies, slides, or paper; • Prepare a glossary for the interpretation to gather all the vocabulary which you might need for the job (terms, nouns, verbs, abbreviations, etc. ). ***

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